Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation: The Co-Chaperone Hch1 Regulates Hsp90 Function Differently Than Its Homologue Aha1 and Confers Sensitivity to Yeast to the Hsp90 Inhibitor NVP-AUY922.

The Co-Chaperone Hch1 Regulates Hsp90 Function Differently than Its Homologue Aha1 and Confers Sensitivity to Yeast to the Hsp90 Inhibitor NVP-AUY922.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

PLoS One. 2012; 7(11): e49322
Armstrong H, Wolmarans A, Mercier R, Mai B, Lapointe P

Hsp90 is a dimeric ATPase responsible for the activation or maturation of a specific set of substrate proteins termed ‘clients’. This molecular chaperone acts in the context of a structurally dynamic and highly regulated cycle involving ATP, co-chaperone proteins and clients. Co-chaperone proteins regulate conformational transitions that may be impaired in mutant forms of Hsp90. We report here that the in vivo impairment of commonly studied Hsp90 variants harbouring the G313S or A587T mutation are exacerbated by the co-chaperone Hch1p. Deletion of HCH1, but not AHA1, mitigates the temperature sensitive phenotype and high sensitivity to Hsp90 inhibitor drugs observed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that express either of these two Hsp90 variants. Moreover, the deletion of HCH1 results in high resistance to Hsp90 inhibitors in yeast that express wildtype Hsp90. Conversely, the overexpression of Hch1p greatly increases sensitivity to Hsp90 inhibition in yeast expressing wildtype Hsp90. We conclude that despite the similarity between these two co-chaperones, Hch1p and Aha1p regulate Hsp90 function in distinct ways and likely independent of their roles as ATPase stimulators. We further conclude that Hch1p plays a critical role in regulating Hsp90 inhibitor drug sensitivity in yeast.
HubMed – drug


Effect of Pullulan Nanoparticle Surface Charges on HSA Complexation and Drug Release Behavior of HSA-Bound Nanoparticles.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

PLoS One. 2012; 7(11): e49304
Tao X, Zhang Q, Ling K, Chen Y, Yang W, Gao F, Shi G

Nanoparticle (NP) compositions such as hydrophobicity and surface charge are vital to determine the presence and amount of human serum albumin (HSA) binding. The HSA binding influences drug release, biocompatibility, biodistribution, and intercellular trafficking of nanoparticles (NPs). Here, we prepared 2 kinds of nanomaterials to investigate HSA binding and evaluated drug release of HSA-bound NPs. Polysaccharides (pullulan) carboxyethylated to provide ionic derivatives were then conjugated to cholesterol groups to obtain cholesterol-modified carboxyethyl pullulan (CHCP). Cholesterol-modified pullulan (CHP) conjugate was synthesized with a similar degree of substitution of cholesterol moiety to CHCP. CHCP formed self-aggregated NPs in aqueous solution with a spherical structure and zeta potential of -19.9±0.23 mV, in contrast to -1.21±0.12 mV of CHP NPs. NPs could quench albumin fluorescence intensity with maximum emission intensity gradually decreasing up to a plateau at 9 to 12 h. Binding constants were 1.12×10(5) M(-1) and 0.70×10(5) M(-1) to CHP and CHCP, respectively, as determined by Stern-Volmer analysis. The complexation between HSA and NPs was a gradual process driven by hydrophobic force and inhibited by NP surface charge and shell-core structure. HSA conformation was altered by NPs with reduction of ?-helical content, depending on interaction time and particle surface charges. These NPs could represent a sustained release carrier for mitoxantrone in vitro, and the bound HSA assisted in enhancing sustained drug release.
HubMed – drug


The Nonantibiotic Small Molecule Cyslabdan Enhances the Potency of ?-Lactams against MRSA by Inhibiting Pentaglycine Interpeptide Bridge Synthesis.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

PLoS One. 2012; 7(11): e48981
Koyama N, Tokura Y, Münch D, Sahl HG, Schneider T, Shibagaki Y, Ikeda H, Tomoda H

The nonantibiotic small molecule cyslabdan, a labdan-type diterpene produced by Streptomyces sp. K04-0144, markedly potentiated the activity of the ?-lactam drug imipenem against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). To study the mechanism of action of cyslabdan, the proteins that bind to cyslabdan were investigated in an MRSA lysate, which led to the identification of FemA, which is involved in the synthesis of the pentaglycine interpeptide bridge of the peptidoglycan of MRSA. Furthermore, binding assay of cyslabdan to FemB and FemX with the function similar to FemA revealed that cyslabdan had an affinity for FemB but not FemX. In an enzyme-based assay, cyslabdan inhibited FemA activity, where as did not affected FemX and FemB activities. Nonglycyl and monoglycyl murein monomers were accumulated by cyslabdan in the peptidoglycan of MRSA cell walls. These findings indicated that cyslabdan primarily inhibits FemA, thereby suppressing pentaglycine interpeptide bridge synthesis. This protein is a key factor in the determination of ?-lactam resistance in MRSA, and our findings provide a new strategy for combating MRSA.
HubMed – drug



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