Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation: TARGETED TREATMENTS in AUTISM and FRAGILE X SYNDROME.


Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

Res Autism Spectr Disord. 2012 Oct 1; 6(4): 1311-1320
Gürkan CK, Hagerman RJ

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder consisting of a constellation of symptoms that sometimes occur as part of a complex disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction, communication and behavioral domains. It is a highly disabling disorder and there is a need for treatment targeting the core symptoms. Although autism is accepted as highly heritable, there is no genetic cure at this time. Autism is shown to be linked to several genes and is a feature of some complex genetic disorders, including fragile X syndrome (FXS), fragile X premutation involvement, tuberous sclerosis and Rett syndrome. The term autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) covers autism, Asperger syndrome and pervasive developmental disorders (PDD-NOS) and the etiologies are heterogeneous. In recent years, targeted treatments have been developed for several disorders that have a known specific genetic cause leading to autism. Since there are significant molecular and neurobiological overlaps among disorders, targeted treatments developed for a specific disorder may be helpful in ASD of unknown etiology. Examples of this are two drug classes developed to treat FXS, Arbaclofen, a GABA(B) agonist, and mGluR5 antagonists, and both may be helpful in autism without FXS. The mGluR5 antagonists are also likely to have a benefit in the aging problems of fragile X premutation carriers, the fragile X -associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) and the Parkinsonism that can occur in aging patients with fragile X syndrome. Targeted treatments in FXS which has a well known genetic etiology may lead to new targeted treatments in autism.
HubMed – drug


Conducting the G-protein Coupled Receptor (GPCR) Signaling Symphony in Cardiovascular Diseases: New Therapeutic Approaches.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

Drug Discov Today Dis Models. 2012; 9(3): e85-e90
Belmonte SL, Blaxall BC

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a virtually ubiquitous class of membrane-bound receptors, which functionally couple hormone or neurotransmitter signals to physiological responses. Dysregulation of GPCR signaling contributes to the pathophysiology of a host of cardiovascular disorders. Pharmacological agents targeting GPCRs have been established as therapeutic options for decades. Nevertheless, the persistent burden of cardiovascular diseases necessitates improved treatments. To that end, exciting drug development efforts have begun to focus on novel compounds that discriminately activate particular GPCR signaling pathways.
HubMed – drug


Determining the effect of implant surgery on blood oxygen saturation of the adjacent tooth.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

Dent Res J (Isfahan). 2012 Jul; 9(4): 433-6
Kaviani N, Shahaboyi M, Khabazian A

Implant surgery requires local anesthesia and drilling. This surgery may affect the blood circulation of the adjacent teeth. In this study, we evaluated the blood oxygen saturation of the healthy adjacent tooth with a pulse oximeter, during implant surgery.In this clinical trial study, 15 healthy adult patients, who were candidates for anterior implant surgery and had healthy anterior adjacent teeth, were selected. Blood oxygen saturation of the adjacent tooth and index finger was measured with a pulse oximeter, before and after local anesthetic injection, and also immediately and one hour after completion of surgery. The collected data were analyzed with a Paired Samples Test and Spearman’s Correlation Coefficient. (the significance level was at alpha P < 0.05).The mean value of peripheral finger blood Spo(2) before local anesthetic injection was 98.2% and remained stable during surgery. In the adjacent tooth, the mean values of the pulpal Spo(2), before and after local anesthesia, were 87.73 and 79.27%, respectively; immediately after surgery it was 86.13% and one hour after surgery was 86.4%. The decrease in the value of pulpal Spo(2) after local anesthesia compared to before the injection was significant. Also there was an inverse relationship between the numbers of utilized local anesthetic cartridges and the value of pulpal Spo(2) after local anesthesia.After giving local anesthesia, the mean value of Spo(2) in the adjacent tooth, because of the vasoconstructive effect of epinephrine, was decreased to about 8%. According to this study, the effect of the local anesthetic drug, containing epinephrine, on the blood circulation in the adjacent tooth was significantly more than the trauma from the implant surgery. We wonder if this temporary decrease in blood flow in the adjacent toot is clinically important or not. To answer this question more studies are required. HubMed – drug


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