Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation: Streptococcus Pneumoniae Carriage in the Gaza Strip.

Streptococcus pneumoniae Carriage in the Gaza Strip.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

PLoS One. 2012; 7(4): e35061
Regev-Yochay G, Abullaish I, Malley R, Shainberg B, Varon M, Roytman Y, Ziv A, Goral A, Elhamdany A, Rahav G, Raz M,

BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal infections cause major morbidity and mortality in developing countries. We report the epidemiology of S. pneumoniae carriage in a developing region, the Gaza strip, and evaluate the theoretical coverage of carriage strains by pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). METHODOLOGY: In 2009 we conducted a cross-sectional survey of S. pneumoniae carriage in healthy children and their parents, living throughout the Gaza strip. Data were collected and nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained. Antibiotic susceptibilities were determined by Vitek-2 and serotypes by the Quellung reaction. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: S. pneumoniae carriage was detected in 189/379 (50%) of children and 30/376 (8%) of parents. Carriage prevalence was highest in children <6 months of age (63%). Significant predictors for child carriage were number of household members and DCC attendance. The proportion of pediatric and adults isolates with serotypes included in PCV7 were 32% and 20% respectively, and 46% and 33% in PCV13 respectively. The most prominent non-vaccine serotypes (NVT) were 35B, 15B/C and 23B. Penicillin-nonsusceptible strains were carried by70% of carriers, penicillin-resistant strains (PRSP) by 13% and Multi-drug-resistant (MDR) by 30%. Of all PRSP isolates 54% belonged to serotypes included in PCV7 and 71% in the PCV13. Similarly, 59% and 73% of MDR-SP isolates, would theoretically be covered by PCV7 and PCV13, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that, PCV13-included strains were carried by 46% and 33% of pediatric and adult subjects respectively. In the absence of definitive data regarding the virulence of the NVT strains, it is difficult to predict the effect of PCVs on IPD in this region. HubMed – drug


Molecular imaging with activatable reporter systems.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

Theranostics. 2012; 2(4): 413-23
Niu G, Chen X

Molecular imaging is a newly emerged multiple disciplinary field that aims to visualize, characterize and quantitatively measure biological processes at cellular and molecular levels in humans and other living systems. A reporter gene is a piece of DNA encoding reporter protein, which presents as a readily measurable phenotype that can be distinguished easily from the background of endogenous protein. After being transferred into cells of organ systems (transgenes), the reporter gene can be utilized to visualize transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression, protein-protein interactions, or trafficking of proteins or cells in living subjects. Herein, we review previous classification of reporter genes and regroup the reporter gene based imaging as basic, inducible and activatable, based on the regulation of reporter gene transcription and post-translational modification of reporter proteins. We then focus on activatable reporters, in which the signal can be activated at the posttranslational level for visualizing protein-protein interactions, protein phosphorylation or tertiary structure changes. The applications of several types of activatable reporters will also be summarized. We conclude that activatable reporter imaging can benefit both basic biomedical research and drug development.
HubMed – drug


Bacillary prostatitis after intravesical immunotherapy: a rare adverse effect.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

Case Rep Oncol. 2012 Jan; 5(1): 80-3
Joaquim A, Custódio S, Pimentel FL, Matos JF, Peixoto V, Faria AL, Macedo JE, Macias E, Rego S, Araújo A

Nowadays, the most efficient form of intravesical immunotherapy for superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is the instillation of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), proceeding from an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis. In up to 40% of cases, its instillation is associated with significantly elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. In these cases, prostate biopsy should be withheld for 3 months and PSA should be monitored. Bacillary prostatitis is a rare occurrence in patients treated with intravesical BCG immunotherapy. Although symptomatic bacillary prostatitis is even rarer, it is the worst type of this condition. The aims of this study are to report a case of bacillary prostatitis as a rare adverse effect of intravesical BCG immunotherapy and to make a theoretical review about how to manage this complication. A 58-year-old man, former smoker, underwent a transurethral resection of the bladder in February 2004 because of a papillary transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (pT1G2N0M0). After surgery, BCG instillation therapy was given in a total of 15 instillations, the last one in March 2007. In the last 3 months of therapy, until May 2007, a progressive increase in his PSA level was registered, and he underwent a prostate biopsy revealing granulomatous prostatitis of bacillary etiology. The semen culture was positive for M. bovis. After 3 months of a two-drug (isoniazid and rifampin) antituberculous regimen, the semen culture became negative and the PSA level decreased. The early identification of intravesical BCG immunotherapy complications allows their effective treatment. However, when a histological diagnosis of asymptomatic granulomatous prostatitis is made, the execution and type of treatment are controversial.
HubMed – drug


Dysregulation of d2-mediated dopamine transmission in monkeys after chronic escalating methamphetamine exposure.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

J Neurosci. 2012 Apr 25; 32(17): 5843-52
Groman SM, Lee B, Seu E, James AS, Feiler K, Mandelkern MA, London ED, Jentsch JD

Compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking are important substance-abuse behaviors that have been linked to alterations in dopaminergic neurotransmission and to impaired inhibitory control. Evidence supports the notions that abnormal D(2) receptor-mediated dopamine transmission and inhibitory control may be heritable risk factors for addictions, and that they also reflect drug-induced neuroadaptations. To provide a mechanistic explanation for the drug-induced emergence of inhibitory-control deficits, this study examined how a chronic, escalating-dose regimen of methamphetamine administration affected dopaminergic neurochemistry and cognition in monkeys. Dopamine D(2)-like receptor and dopamine transporter (DAT) availability and reversal-learning performance were measured before and after exposure to methamphetamine (or saline), and brain dopamine levels were assayed at the conclusion of the study. Exposure to methamphetamine reduced dopamine D(2)-like receptor and DAT availability and produced transient, selective impairments in the reversal of a stimulus-outcome association. Furthermore, individual differences in the change in D(2)-like receptor availability in the striatum were related to the change in response to positive feedback. These data provide evidence that chronic, escalating-dose methamphetamine administration alters the dopamine system in a manner similar to that observed in methamphetamine-dependent humans. They also implicate alterations in positive-feedback sensitivity associated with D(2)-like receptor dysfunction as the mechanism by which inhibitory control deficits emerge in stimulant-dependent individuals. Finally, a significant degree of neurochemical and behavioral variation in response to methamphetamine was detected, indicating that individual differences affect the degree to which drugs of abuse alter these processes. Identification of these factors ultimately may assist in the development of individualized treatments for substance dependence.
HubMed – drug


Saint Jude Retreats Receives Donation That Will Help Guests Attend Alcohol

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

Proceeds will benefit the Saint Jude's scholarship fund which helps individuals who could not afford to attend St. Jude's substance use program, an alternative to alcohol and drug rehab programs. "Saint Jude's makes finding help a reality for many …
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