Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation: Rapid Susceptibility Testing and Microcolony Analysis of Candida Spp. Cultured and Imaged on Porous Aluminum Oxide.

Rapid Susceptibility Testing and Microcolony Analysis of Candida spp. Cultured and Imaged on Porous Aluminum Oxide.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

PLoS One. 2012; 7(3): e33818
Ingham CJ, Boonstra S, Levels S, de Lange M, Meis JF, Schneeberger PM

Acquired resistance to antifungal agents now supports the introduction of susceptibility testing for species-drug combinations for which this was previously thought unnecessary. For pathogenic yeasts, conventional phenotypic testing needs at least 24 h. Culture on a porous aluminum oxide (PAO) support combined with microscopy offers a route to more rapid results.Microcolonies of Candida species grown on PAO were stained with the fluorogenic dyes Fun-1 and Calcofluor White and then imaged by fluorescence microscopy. Images were captured by a charge-coupled device camera and processed by publicly available software. By this method, the growth of yeasts could be detected and quantified within 2 h. Microcolony imaging was then used to assess the susceptibility of the yeasts to amphotericin B, anidulafungin and caspofungin (3.5 h culture), and voriconazole and itraconazole (7 h culture).Overall, the results showed good agreement with EUCAST (86.5% agreement; n?=?170) and E-test (85.9% agreement; n?=?170). The closest agreement to standard tests was found when testing susceptibility to amphotericin B and echinocandins (88.2 to 91.2%) and the least good for the triazoles (79.4 to 82.4%). Furthermore, large datasets on population variation could be rapidly obtained. An analysis of microcolonies revealed subtle effects of antimycotics on resistant strains and below the MIC of sensitive strains, particularly an increase in population heterogeneity and cell density-dependent effects of triazoles. Additionally, the method could be adapted to strain identification via germ tube extension. We suggest PAO culture is a rapid and versatile method that may be usefully adapted to clinical mycology and has research applications.
HubMed – drug


Anthrax lethal toxin disrupts intestinal barrier function and causes systemic infections with enteric bacteria.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

PLoS One. 2012; 7(3): e33583
Sun C, Fang H, Xie T, Auth RD, Patel N, Murray PR, Snoy PJ, Frucht DM

A variety of intestinal pathogens have virulence factors that target mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, including Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax lethal toxin (LT) has specific proteolytic activity against the upstream regulators of MAPKs, the MAPK kinases (MKKs). Using a murine model of intoxication, we show that LT causes the dose-dependent disruption of intestinal epithelial integrity, characterized by mucosal erosion, ulceration, and bleeding. This pathology correlates with an LT-dependent blockade of intestinal crypt cell proliferation, accompanied by marked apoptosis in the villus tips. C57BL/6J mice treated with intravenous LT nearly uniformly develop systemic infections with commensal enteric organisms within 72 hours of administration. LT-dependent intestinal pathology depends upon its proteolytic activity and is partially attenuated by co-administration of broad spectrum antibiotics, indicating that it is both a cause and an effect of infection. These findings indicate that targeting of MAPK signaling pathways by anthrax LT compromises the structural integrity of the mucosal layer, serving to undermine the effectiveness of the intestinal barrier. Combined with the well-described immunosuppressive effects of LT, this disruption of the intestinal barrier provides a potential mechanism for host invasion via the enteric route, a common portal of entry during the natural infection cycle of Bacillus anthracis.
HubMed – drug


Alterations to melanocortinergic, GABAergic and cannabinoid neurotransmission associated with olanzapine-induced weight gain.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

PLoS One. 2012; 7(3): e33548
Weston-Green K, Huang XF, Deng C

Second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are used to treat schizophrenia but can cause serious metabolic side-effects, such as obesity and diabetes. This study examined the effects of low to high doses of olanzapine on appetite/metabolic regulatory signals in the hypothalamus and brainstem to elucidate the mechanisms underlying olanzapine-induced obesity.Levels of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD(65), enzyme for GABA synthesis) mRNA expression, and cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) binding density (using [(3)H]SR-141716A) were examined in the arcuate nucleus (Arc) and dorsal vagal complex (DVC) of female Sprague Dawley rats following 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg olanzapine or vehicle (3×/day, 14-days). Consistent with its weight gain liability, olanzapine significantly decreased anorexigenic POMC and increased orexigenic NPY mRNA expression in a dose-sensitive manner in the Arc. GAD(65) mRNA expression increased and CB1R binding density decreased in the Arc and DVC. Alterations to neurotransmission signals in the brain significantly correlated with body weight and adiposity. The minimum dosage threshold required to induce weight gain in the rat was 0.5 mg/kg olanzapine.Olanzapine-induced weight gain is associated with reduced appetite-inhibiting POMC and increased NPY. This study also supports a role for the CB1R and GABA in the mechanisms underlying weight gain side-effects, possibly by altering POMC transmission. Metabolic dysfunction can be modelled in the female rat using low, clinically-comparable olanzapine doses when administered in-line with the half-life of the drug.
HubMed – drug


Reversal of Cocaine-Conditioned Place Preference through Methyl Supplementation in Mice: Altering Global DNA Methylation in the Prefrontal Cortex.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

PLoS One. 2012; 7(3): e33435
Tian W, Zhao M, Li M, Song T, Zhang M, Quan L, Li S, Sun ZS

Analysis of global methylation in cells has revealed correlations between overall DNA methylation status and some biological states. Recent studies suggest that epigenetic regulation through DNA methylation could be responsible for neuroadaptations induced by addictive drugs. However, there is no investigation to determine global DNA methylation status following repeated exposure to addictive drugs. Using mice conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure, we measured global DNA methylation level in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the prefrontal cortex (PFC) associated with drug rewarding effects. We found that cocaine-, but not morphine- or food-CPP training decreased global DNA methylation in the PFC. Chronic treatment with methionine, a methyl donor, for 25 consecutive days prior to and during CPP training inhibited the establishment of cocaine, but not morphine or food CPP. We also found that both mRNA and protein level of DNMT (DNA methytransferase) 3b in the PFC were downregulated following the establishment of cocaine CPP, and the downregulation could be reversed by repeated administration of methionine. Our study indicates a crucial role of global PFC DNA hypomethylation in the rewarding effects of cocaine. Reversal of global DNA hypomethylation could significantly attenuate the rewarding effects induced by cocaine. Our results suggest that methionine may have become a potential therapeutic target to treat cocaine addiction.
HubMed – drug



(Stanton, Ca): Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation Center Southern California (866)491-0214 – Laguna Beach Recovery Center www.Lagunarecovery.com (866)491-0214 Laguna Beach Recovery Center is based on a loving dignified approach, in renowned Laguna Beach, California. As an Alcohol and drug treatment recovery facility we have the highest long-term success rate in the industry, and will treat you or your loved one like family. We have a highly effective therapeutic approach to treating alcohol and drug addiction. Our renowned treatment is coupled with our finely appointed amenities that are steps from the beach. We focus on providing the foundation and tools for lifelong recovery. Each program is designed and based upon an individuals specific needs. We have a wide variety of programs including 3-5 day detox, 7-10 day fast track, core 30 day programs, extended care, transitional living, as well as executive and professional treatment options. Some of the amenities included in our program are •One-on-one and Group Counseling •Life & Recovery Coaching •Ocean view Rooms •In-Depth Psychological Assessment •Full-time Chef & Maid Service •Weekly Massage •Gym and Personal Trainer •Excursions on a private yacht Not sure where to start? Don’t know what to do? The first step is to pick up the phone and let us support you. We have trained professionals available to help 24 hours a day. Our intake specialists will help you clarify the situation, determine the best course of treatment, and most importantly get in to action! There is no other treatment staff and facility that


Find More Drug And Alcohol Rehabilitation Information…