Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation: Psychomotor Function in Chronic Daily Cannabis Smokers During Sustained Abstinence.

Psychomotor Function in Chronic Daily Cannabis Smokers during Sustained Abstinence.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

PLoS One. 2013; 8(1): e53127
Bosker WM, Karschner EL, Lee D, Goodwin RS, Hirvonen J, Innis RB, Theunissen EL, Kuypers KP, Huestis MA, Ramaekers JG

The present study assessed psychomotor function in chronic, daily cannabis smokers during 3 weeks continuously monitored abstinence on a secure research unit. We hypothesized that psychomotor performance would improve during abstinence of chronic, daily cannabis smokers.Performance on the critical tracking (CTT) and divided attention (DAT) tasks was assessed in 19 male chronic, daily cannabis smokers at baseline and after 8, 14-16 and 21-23 days of continuously monitored abstinence. Psychomotor performance was compared to a control group of non-intoxicated occasional drug users. Critical frequency (?(c)) of the CTT and tracking error and control losses of the DAT were the primary outcome measures. Results showed that chronic cannabis smokers’ performance on the CTT (p<0.001) and the DAT (p<0.001) was impaired during baseline relative to the comparison group. Psychomotor performance in the chronic cannabis smokers improved over 3 weeks of abstinence, but did not recover to equivalent control group performance.Sustained cannabis abstinence moderately improved critical tracking and divided attention performance in chronic, daily cannabis smokers, but impairment was still observable compared to controls after 3 weeks of abstinence. Between group differences, however, need to be interpreted with caution as chronic smokers and controls were not matched for education, social economic status, life style and race. HubMed – drug


Concentration-Dependent Inhibitory Effect of Baicalin on the Plasma Protein Binding and Metabolism of Chlorzoxazone, a CYP2E1 Probe Substrate, in Rats In Vitro and In Vivo.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

PLoS One. 2013; 8(1): e53038
Gao N, Zou D, Qiao HL

Some of the components found in herbs may be inhibitors or inducers of cytochrome P450 enzymes, which may therefore result in undesired herb-drug interactions. As a component extracted from Radix Scutellariae, the direct effect of baicalin on cytochrome P450 has not been investigated sufficiently. In this study, we investigated concentration-dependent inhibitory effect of baicalin on the plasma protein binding and metabolism of chlorzoxazone (CZN), a model CYP2E1 probe substrate, in rats in vitro and in vivo. Animal experiment was a randomized, three-period crossover design. Significant changes in pharmacokinetic parameters of CZN such as C(max), t(1/2) and V(d) were observed after treatment with baicalin in vivo (P<0.05). C(max) decreased by 25% and 33%, whereas t(1/2) increased by 34% and 53%, V(d) increased by 37% and 50% in 225 mg/kg and 450 mg/kg baicalin-treated rats, respectively. The AUC and CL of CZN were not affected (P>0.05). Correlation analysis showed that the changes in CZN concentrations and baicalin concentrations were in good correlation (r>0.99). In vitro experiments, baicalin decreased the formation of 6-OH-chlorzoxazone in a concentration-dependent manner and exhibited a competitive inhibition in rat liver microsomes, with a Ki value of 145.8 µM. The values of C(max)/Ki were 20 and 39 after treatment with baicalin (225 and 450 mg/kg), respectively. Protein binding experiments in vivo showed that the plasma free-fraction (fu) of CZN increased 2.6-fold immediately after baicalin treatment (450 mg/kg) and in vitro showed that baicalin (125-2500 mg/L) increased the unbound CZN from 1.63% to 3.58%. The results indicate that pharmacokinetic changes in CZN are induced by inhibitory effect of baicalin on the plasma protein binding of CZN and CYP2E1 activity.
HubMed – drug


Oral anticoagulation therapy in heart failure patients in sinus rhythm: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

PLoS One. 2013; 8(1): e52952
Rengo G, Pagano G, Squizzato A, Moja L, Femminella GD, de Lucia C, Komici K, Parisi V, Savarese G, Ferrara N, Perrone-Filardi P, Leosco D

Heart failure (HF) patients show high morbidity and mortality rate with increased risk of malignant arrhythmia and thromboembolism. Anticoagulation reduces embolic event and death rates in HF patients with atrial fibrillation, but if antithrombotic therapy is beneficial in patients with HF in sinus rhythm is still debated.We conducted a systematic review of prospective, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the efficacy and safety of oral anticoagulant therapies (OATs) compared to antiplatelet treatment in HF patients in sinus rhythm. MEDLINE, Web of Science, CENTRAL and Scopus databases were searched up to May 2012. Four RCTs were identified and a total of 3663 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Patients with both ischemic and non-ischemic HF were included. There was no significant difference in mortality (odds ratio (OR) 1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.86 to 1.19) between OATs group and antiplatelet drug group. OATs have reduced ischemic stroke risk (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.74), but have increased major bleeding risk (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.40 to 2.88) compared to antiplatelet treatment.In HF patients in sinus rhythm OATs do not show a better risk-benefit profile compared to antiplatelet treatment in cardioembolism prevention. Warfarin and aspirin seem to be similar in reducing mortality. Warfarin reduces the incidence of ischemic stroke, but increases major bleedings. Thus, it is possible to speculate that aspirin prescription be indicated in patients with high risk of bleeding, whereas warfarin could be preferred in patients with high thromboembolic risk.
HubMed – drug


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