Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation: Once-Daily Gastroretentive Gabapentin for the Management of Postherpetic Neuralgia: An Update for Clinicians.

Once-daily gastroretentive gabapentin for the management of postherpetic neuralgia: an update for clinicians.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

Ther Adv Chronic Dis. 2012 Sep; 3(5): 211-8
Irving G

Gabapentin was originally developed as an add-on anticonvulsant drug, but has been widely used in the USA for the management of postherpetic neuralgia since its approval for this indication in 2002. Gabapentin has a short elimination half life and limited absorption due to a saturable L-amino acid transport system, which is expressed predominantly in the proximal small intestine. Hence, the original immediate-release gabapentin formulation (gabapentin TID) must usually be taken three times a day for optimal efficacy. Gabapentin TID is also associated with a high incidence of dizziness and somnolence and some patients are unable to tolerate the doses required for maximum pain relief. A once-daily, gastroretentive formulation of gabapentin was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the management of postherpetic neuralgia. This formulation provides gradual release of gabapentin to the optimal site of absorption in the proximal small intestine and reduces the chance of saturating intestinal uptake, thus enabling once-daily dosing of gabapentin. This gradual release and absorption have been demonstrated in pharmacokinetic studies in healthy subjects. The efficacy of once-daily gastroretentive gabapentin for the management of postherpetic neuralgia has been demonstrated in placebo-controlled clinical studies. In addition, data from these studies suggest that the incidence of dizziness and somnolence may be reduced compared with similar studies using gabapentin TID. This article provides an overview of the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of once-daily gastroretentive gabapentin for the management of postherpetic neuralgia.
HubMed – drug


Aflibercept in wet age-related macular degeneration: a perspective review.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

Ther Adv Chronic Dis. 2012 Jul; 3(4): 153-61
Ohr M, Kaiser PK

In the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has emerged as a key target of therapy. Currently, patients with neovascular AMD are treated with monthly intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF medications. Aflibercept is a novel recombinant fusion protein engineered to bind all isoforms of VEGF-A, VEGF-B, and placental growth factor. It is the latest medication to receive US Federal Drug Administration (FDA) approval for the treatment of neovascular AMD. Theoretical models suggest this molecule may have a longer duration of action compared with current treatments. The results of the VEGF Trap-Eye: Investigation of Efficacy and Safety in wet Age-related Macular Degeneration studies (VIEW 1 and VIEW 2) support this by demonstrating that aflibercept, dosed every 2 months after a monthly loading dose for 3 months, was noninferior in the proportion of patients who maintained or improved vision at 52 weeks compared with monthly injections of ranibizumab. These results were maintained over the 2 years of the studies. Aflibercept (Eylea; Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Tarrytown, NY, USA and Bayer, Basel, Switzerland) was approved by the FDA for the treatment of neovascular AMD on 18 November 2011.
HubMed – drug


Antinociceptive effect of intrathecal nefopam and interaction with morphine in formalin-induced pain of rats.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

Korean J Pain. 2013 Jan; 26(1): 14-20
Cho SY, Park AR, Yoon MH, Lee HG, Kim WM, Choi JI

Nefopam, a non-opiate analgesic, has been regarded as a substance that reduces the requirement for morphine, but conflicting results have also been reported. The inhibition of monoamine reuptake is a mechanism of action for the analgesia of nefopam. The spinal cord is an important site for the action of monoamines however, the antinociceptive effect of intrathecal nefopam was not clear. This study was performed to examine the antinociceptive effect of intrathecal (i.t.) nefopam and the pattern of pharmacologic interaction with i.t. morphine in the formalin test.Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with an i.t. catheter, and were randomly treated with a vehicle, nefopam, or morphine. Formalin was injected into the hind-paw 10 min. after an i.t. injection of the above experiment drugs. After obtaining antinociceptive ED(50) of nefopam and morphine, the mixture of nefopam and morphine was tested for the antinociceptive effect in the formalin test at a dose of 1/8, 1/4, 1/2 of ED(50), or ED(50) of each drug followed by an isobolographic analysis.Intrathecal nefopam significantly reduced the flinching responses in both phases of the formalin test in a dose-dependent manner. Its effect, however, peaked at a dose of 30 µg in phase 1 (39.8% of control) and 10 µg during phase 2 (37.6% of control). The isobolograhic analysis indicated an additive interaction of nefopam and morphine during phase 2, and a synergy effect in antinociception during phase 1.This study demonstrated that i.t. nefopam produces an antinociceptive effect in formalin induced pain behavior during both phases of the formalin test, while interacting differently with i.t. morphine, synergistically during phase 1, and additively during phase 2.
HubMed – drug



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