Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation: MRI Contrast Variation of Thermosensitive Magnetoliposomes Triggered by Focused Ultrasound: A Tool for Image-Guided Local Drug Delivery.

MRI contrast variation of thermosensitive magnetoliposomes triggered by focused ultrasound: a tool for image-guided local drug delivery.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

Contrast Media Mol Imaging. 2013 Mar; 8(2): 185-92
Lorenzato C, Cernicanu A, Meyre ME, Germain M, Pottier A, Levy L, de Senneville BD, Bos C, Moonen C, Smirnov P

Improved drug delivery control during chemotherapy has the potential to increase the therapeutic index. MRI contrast agent such as iron oxide nanoparticles can be co-encapsulated with drugs in nanocarrier liposomes allowing their tracking and/or visualization by MRI. Furthermore, the combination of a thermosensitive liposomal formulation with an external source of heat such as high intensity focused ultrasound guided by MR temperature mapping allows the controlled local release of the content of the liposome. MRI-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), in combination represents a noninvasive technique to generate local hyperthermia for drug release. In this study we used ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIO) encapsulated in thermosensitive liposomes to obtain thermosensitive magnetoliposomes (TSM). The transverse and longitudinal relaxivities of this MRI contrast agent were measured upon TSM membrane phase transition in vitro using a water bath or HIFU. The results showed significant differences for MRI signal enhancement and relaxivities before and after heating, which were absent for nonthermosensitive liposomes and free nanoparticles used as controls. Thus, incorporation of USPIO as MRI contrast agents into thermosensitive liposomes should, besides TSM tumor accumulation monitoring, allow the visualization of TSM membrane phase transition upon temperature elevation. In conclusion, HIFU under MR image guidance in combination with USPIO-loaded thermosensitive liposomes as drug delivery system has the potential for a better control of drug delivery and to increase the drug therapeutic index. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Passive targeting of lipid-based nanoparticles to mouse cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

Contrast Media Mol Imaging. 2013 Mar; 8(2): 117-26
Geelen T, Paulis LE, Coolen BF, Nicolay K, Strijkers GJ

Reperfusion therapy is commonly applied after a myocardial infarction. Reperfusion, however, causes secondary damage. An emerging approach for treatment of ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury involves the delivery of therapeutic nanoparticles to the myocardium to promote cell survival and constructively influence scar formation and myocardial remodeling. The aim of this study was to provide detailed understanding of the in vivo accumulation and distribution kinetics of lipid-based nanoparticles (micelles and liposomes) in a mouse model of acute and chronic IR injury. Both micelles and liposomes contained paramagnetic and fluorescent lipids and could therefore be visualized with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). In acute IR injury both types of nanoparticles accumulated massively and specifically in the infarcted myocardium as revealed by MRI and CLSM. Micelles displayed faster accumulation kinetics, probably owing to their smaller size. Liposomes occasionally co-localized with vessels and inflammatory cells. In chronic IR injury only minor accumulation of micelles was observed with MRI. Nevertheless, CLSM revealed specific accumulation of both micelles and liposomes in the infarct area 3?h after administration. Owing to their specific accumulation in the infarcted myocardium, lipid-based micelles and liposomes are promising vehicles for (visualization of) drug delivery in myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
HubMed – drug


Molecular imprinted polymers for separation science: A review of reviews.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

J Sep Sci. 2012 Dec 26;
Cheong WJ, Yang SH, Ali F

Molecular imprinted polymer is an artificial receptor made by imprinting molecules of a template in a polymer matrix followed by removing the template molecules via thorough washing to give the permanent template grooves. They show favored affinity to the template molecule compared to other molecules, and this property is the basic driving force for such diverse application of this techniques. Such techniques have been increasingly employed in a wide scope of applications such as chromatography, sample pretreatment, purification, catalysts, sensors, and drug delivery, etc., mostly in bioanalytical areas. A major part of them is related to development of new stationary phases and their application in chromatography and sample pretreatment. Embodiments of molecular imprinted polymer materials have been carried out in a variety of forms such as irregularly ground particles, regular spherical particles, nanoparticles, monoliths in a stainless steel or capillary column, open tubular layers in capillaries, surface attached thin layers, membranes, and composites, etc. There have been numerous review articles on molecular imprinted polymer issues. In this special review, the reviews in recent ca. 10 years will be categorized into several subgroups according to specified topics in separation science, and each review in each subgroup will be introduced in the order of date with brief summaries and comments on new developments and different scopes of prospects. Brief summaries of each categories and conclusive future perspectives are also given.
HubMed – drug


Bronchoscopic assessment of airway involvement in children presenting with clinically significant airway obstruction due to tuberculosis.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

Pediatr Pulmonol. 2012 Dec 31;
Goussard P, Gie RP, Kling S, Andronikou S, Lucas S, Janson J, Roussouw G

INTRODUCTION: The incidence of complicated lymph node disease in tuberculosis (TB) in children less than 15 years of age varies from 8% to 38%. There are few published studies on the bronchoscopic appearance and severity of airway obstruction caused by lymph node involvement of the airways resulting from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). The primary aim of the study was to describe the flexible bronchoscopic findings of lymph node involvement of the airways caused by MTB in children with severe airway obstruction. The secondary aim was to compare the degree of airway involvement in HIV negative to HIV positive children as well the airway involvement caused by drug susceptible and drug resistant MTB. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All children between 1 month and 13 years of age presenting with clinical and radiological signs of significant airway obstruction suspected of being the result of MTB infection were studied. In addition to routine examination for MTB disease a flexible bronchoscope and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) for MTB culture were performed on all the children. RESULTS: Two hundred fifty children (16% HIV positive) were studied. Median age was 14 months and the median weight 8.5?kg. MTB was cultured from 78% (n?=?194) of children with the BAL positive in 44%. The BAL culture yield was significantly higher in children with radiological evidence of pneumonia when compared to children with airway involvement alone (P?=?0.004). The bronchial tree was obstructed on the right in 85% (n?=?212), the left in 66% (n?=?164), and both sides in 53% (n?=?132) of cases. The commonest sites of obstruction were bronchus intermedius (72%) and left main bronchus (62%). Drug resistance was present in 16% (n?=?28). There was no difference in the site or severity of obstruction when comparing drug susceptible to drug resistant cases or HIV positive to HIV negative children. CONCLUSIONS: Bronchus intermedius and left main bronchus were the commonest sites of airway obstruction. The MTB culture yield from BAL was higher in children with pneumonia when compared to those with airway involvement alone. HIV positive or children with drug resistant TB did not have more severe airway obstruction. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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