Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation: Mesenchymal Bone Marrow Cell Therapy in a Mouse Model of Chagas Disease. Where Do the Cells Go?

Mesenchymal bone marrow cell therapy in a mouse model of chagas disease. Where do the cells go?

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012 Dec; 6(12): e1971
Jasmin , Jelicks LA, Koba W, Tanowitz HB, Mendez-Otero R, Campos de Carvalho AC, Spray DC

Chagas disease, resulting from infection with the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), is a major cause of cardiomyopathy in Latin America. Drug therapy for acute and chronic disease is limited. Stem cell therapy with bone marrow mesenchymal cells (MSCs) has emerged as a novel therapeutic option for cell death-related heart diseases, but efficacy of MSC has not been tested in Chagas disease.We now report the use of cell-tracking strategies with nanoparticle labeled MSC to investigate migration of transplanted MSC in a murine model of Chagas disease, and correlate MSC biodistribution with glucose metabolism and morphology of heart in chagasic mice by small animal positron emission tomography (microPET). Mice were infected intraperitoneally with trypomastigotes of the Brazil strain of T. cruzi and treated by tail vein injection with MSC one month after infection. MSCs were labeled with near infrared fluorescent nanoparticles and tracked by an in vivo imaging system (IVIS). Our IVIS results two days after transplant revealed that a small, but significant, number of cells migrated to chagasic hearts when compared with control animals, whereas the vast majority of labeled MSC migrated to liver, lungs and spleen. Additionally, the microPET technique demonstrated that therapy with MSC reduced right ventricular dilation, a phenotype of the chagasic mouse model.We conclude that the beneficial effects of MSC therapy in chagasic mice arise from an indirect action of the cells in the heart rather than a direct action due to incorporation of large numbers of transplanted MSC into working myocardium.
HubMed – drug


Regulation of Biotransformation Systems and ABC Transporters by Benznidazole in HepG2 Cells: Involvement of Pregnane X-Receptor.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012 Dec; 6(12): e1951
Rigalli JP, Perdomo VG, Luquita MG, Villanueva SS, Arias A, Theile D, Weiss J, Mottino AD, Ruiz ML, Catania VA

Benznidazole (BZL) is the only antichagasic drug available in most endemic countries. Its effect on the expression and activity of drug-metabolizing and transporter proteins has not been studied yet.Expression and activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2), Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), and Glutathione S-transferase (GST) were evaluated in HepG2 cells after treatment with BZL. Expression was estimated by immunoblotting and real time PCR. P-gp and MRP2 activities were estimated using model substrates rhodamine 123 and dinitrophenyl-S-glutathione (DNP-SG), respectively. CYP3A4 and GST activities were evaluated through their abilities to convert proluciferin into luciferin and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene into DNP-SG, respectively. BZL (200 µM) increased the expression (protein and mRNA) of P-gp, MRP2, CYP3A4, and GST? class. A concomitant enhancement of activity was observed for all these proteins, except for CYP3A4, which exhibited a decreased activity. To elucidate if pregnane X receptor (PXR) mediates BZL response, its expression was knocked down with a specific siRNA. In this condition, the effect of BZL on P-gp, MRP2, CYP3A4, and GST? protein up-regulation was completely abolished. Consistent with this, BZL was able to activate PXR, as detected by reporter gene assay. Additional studies, using transporter inhibitors and P-gp-knock down cells, demonstrated that P-gp is involved in BZL extrusion. Pre-treatment of HepG2 cells with BZL increased its own efflux, as a consequence of P-gp up-regulation.Modifications in the activity of biotransformation and transport systems by BZL may alter the pharmacokinetics and efficiency of drugs that are substrates of these systems, including BZL itself.
HubMed – drug


Azithromycin and ciprofloxacin resistance in salmonella bloodstream infections in cambodian adults.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012 Dec; 6(12): e1933
Vlieghe ER, Phe T, De Smet B, Veng CH, Kham C, Bertrand S, Vanhoof R, Lynen L, Peetermans WE, Jacobs JA

Salmonella enterica is a frequent cause of bloodstream infection (BSI) in Asia but few data are available from Cambodia. We describe Salmonella BSI isolates recovered from patients presenting at Sihanouk Hospital Centre of Hope, Phnom Penh, Cambodia (July 2007-December 2010).Blood was cultured as part of a microbiological prospective surveillance study. Identification of Salmonella isolates was performed by conventional methods and serotyping. Antibiotic susceptibilities were assessed using disk diffusion, MicroScan and E-test macromethod. Clonal relationships were assessed by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis; PCR and sequencing for detection of mutations in Gyrase and Topoisomerase IV and presence of qnr genes.Seventy-two Salmonella isolates grew from 58 patients (mean age 34.2 years, range 8-71). Twenty isolates were identified as Salmonella Typhi, 2 as Salmonella Paratyphi A, 37 as Salmonella Choleraesuis and 13 as other non-typhoid Salmonella spp. Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was present in 21 of 24 (87.5%) patients with S. Choleraesuis BSI. Five patients (8.7%) had at least one recurrent infection, all with S. Choleraesuis; five patients died. Overall, multi drug resistance (i.e., co-resistance to ampicillin, sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim and chloramphenicol) was high (42/59 isolates, 71.2%). S. Typhi displayed high rates of decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility (18/20 isolates, 90.0%), while azithromycin resistance was very common in S. Choleraesuis (17/24 isolates, 70.8%). Two S. Choleraesuis isolates were extended spectrum beta-lactamase producer.Resistance rates in Salmonella spp. in Cambodia are alarming, in particular for azithromycin and ciprofloxacin. This warrants nationwide surveillance and revision of treatment guidelines.
HubMed – drug



Christian Drug Rehab California Dr Ricardo Whyte Behavioral Medicine Center Pt 2 – www.drugalternativeprogram.org | Dr Ricardo Whyte | Treatment centers differ in their approach to drug rehab and Christian rehabilitation programs earn greater results. Drug and alcohol rehabilitation in California are featured in this Southern California based drug treatment program.


Related Drug And Alcohol Rehabilitation Information…