Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation: Meeting the Needs of Women Who Use Drugs and Alcohol in North-East India — a Challenge for HIV Prevention Services.

Meeting the needs of women who use drugs and alcohol in North-east India — a challenge for HIV prevention services.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

BMC Public Health. 2012 Sep 26; 12(1): 825
Kermode M, Songput CH, Sono CZ, Jamir TN, Devine A

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The North-east Indian states of Manipur and Nagaland consistently report relatively high HIV prevalence. The targeted HIV prevention interventions in these two states are mostly delivered by non-government organizations (NGOs), and prevention of HIV transmission by injecting drug use is their main focus. Most injecting drug users (IDUs) are male, and the services are primarily tailored to meet their needs, which are not necessarily the same as those for women. This qualitative study describes the health service needs of women who use drugs and alcohol in Manipur and Nagaland, with the goal of identifying strategies and activities that can be implemented by NGOs wanting to improve their reach among vulnerable women. METHODS: In 2009-10, semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 27 key informants and nine focus group discussions (FGDs) with women who use drugs and alcohol, and two FGDs with male IDUs. The thematic areas covered included: the context of female drug and alcohol use; drug and alcohol use patterns; HIV risk behaviours; barriers and facilitators of service use; perceived health needs; and expressed health service needs. The data were recorded, transcribed, translated and thematically analysed. RESULTS: The most problematic substance for women from Nagaland was alcohol, and for women from Manipur it was heroin. The most commonly identified health problems were primarily related to the women’s drug and alcohol use, reproductive health and mental health. Other problems of major concern included social exclusion, violence, children’s welfare, and financial difficulties. The expressed service needs of these women were women-only integrated health services, women-only detoxification and rehabilitation services, mental health services, desensitization of mainstream health workers, free access to medicines, assistance to meet basic needs, and a safe place for engaging in sex work. CONCLUSION: The expressed health and other service needs of women who use drugs and alcohol in Manipur and Nagaland do not match the services currently provided by HIV prevention NGOs, and this may, in part, account for the relatively poor uptake of these services by women. Strategies and activities that can be implemented by NGOs to strengthen their reach to vulnerable women are identified. However, many of these women’s needs are beyond the scope of services typically offered by HIV prevention NGOs, and require a coordinated multi-sectoral response.
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Function in job seekers with mental illness and drug and alcohol problems who access community based disability employment services.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

Disabil Rehabil. 2012 Aug 14;
Matthews LR, Harris LM, Jaworski A, Alam A, Bozdag G

Purpose: This study identified functioning, health, and social needs in jobseekers with mental disorders independently assessed as having capacity to work and referred to disability employment services. Differences in function between jobseekers with mental illness alone and with additional drug and alcohol problems were examined with view to identifying interventions for vocational rehabilitation. Method: A convenience sample of 116 jobseekers completed BASIS-32, CANSAS, AUDIT, DAST-10 and 6 items from the EXIT interview and were divided into two groups: mental illness only, and additional drug and alcohol issues (AUDIT total score >8 and/or DAST total score >3). Analysis of variance was used to determine group differences. Results: Jobseekers reported low-moderate problems with function. Over 40% of the sample reported unresolved psychological distress, physical health needs, and social/daytime activity needs. Thirty-five jobseekers (30%) had additional drug and alcohol problems and reported significantly greater difficulty with impulsive/addictive behavior and poorer memory and executive function than the mental illness only group. No significant differences were identified in past work functioning. Conclusions: Screening all job seekers for psychological, physical, and social needs to identify suitable treatment and rehabilitation strategies and providing interventions that improve emotional regulation and executive function for job seekers with additional drug and alcohol problems may improve employability of job seekers accessing disability employment services. [Box: see text].
HubMed – drug alcohol rehabilitation


Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

Rev Bras Reumatol. 2012 Aug; 52(4): 580-93
Pereira RM, Carvalho JF, Paula AP, Zerbini C, Domiciano DS, Gonçalves H, Danowski JS, Marques Neto JF, Mendonça LM, Bezerra MC, Terreri MT, Imamura M, Weingrill P, Plapler PG, Radominski S, Tourinho T, Szejnfeld VL, Andrada NC

Glucocorticoids (GC) are used in almost all medical specialties, and approximately 0.5% of the general population of the United Kingdom receives those medications. With the increased survival of patients with rheumatological diseases, morbidity secondary to the use of those medications represents an important aspect of the management of our patients. The incidences of vertebral and non-vertebral fractures are elevated, ranging from 30% to 50% of the individuals on GC for over three months. Thus, osteoporosis and frailty fractures should be prevented and treated in all patients initiating or already on GC. There are several recommendations on this topic elaborated by several international societies, but consensus still lacks. Recently, the American College of Rheumatology has published new recommendations, but they are based on the WHO Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX®) to evaluate the risk for each individual, and, thus, cannot be completely used for the Brazilian population. Thus, the Committee for Osteoporosis and Bone Metabolic Disorders of the Brazilian Society of Rheumatology, along with the Brazilian Medical Association and the Brazilian Association of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, has elaborated the Brazilian Guidelines for Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis (GIO), based on the better available scientific evidence and/or expert experience. METHOD OF EVIDENCE COLLECTION: The bibliographic review of scientific articles of this guideline was performed in the MEDLINE database. The search for evidence was based on real clinical scenarios, and used the following keywords (MeSH terms): Osteoporosis, Osteoporosis/ chemically induced*= (Glucocorticoids= Adrenal Cortex Hormones, Steroids), Glucocorticoids, Glucocorticoids/administration and dosage, Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use, Glucocorticoids/adverse effects, Prednisone/adverse effects, Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Bone Density/drug effects, Bone Density Conservation Agents/pharmacological action, Osteoporosis/prevention & control, Calcium, Vitamin D, Vitamin D deficiency, Calcitriol, Receptors, Calcitriol; 1-hydroxycholecalciferol, Hydroxycholecalciferols, 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-hydroxylase OR Steroid Hydroxylases, Prevention and Control, Spinal fractures/prevention & control, Fractures, Spontaneous, Lumbar Vertebrae/injuries, Lifestyle, Alcohol Drinking, Smoking OR tobacco use disorder, Movement, Resistance Training, Exercise Therapy, Bone density OR Bone and Bones, Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry OR Absorptiometry Photon OR DXA, Densitometry, Radiography, (Diphosphonates Alendronate OR Risedronate Pamidronate OR propanolamines OR Ibandronate OR Zoledronic acid, Teriparatide OR PTH 1-34, Men AND premenopause, pregnancy, pregnancy outcome maternal, fetus, lactation, breast-feeding, teratogens, Children (6-12 years), adolescence (13-18 years). GRADE OF RECOMMENDATION AND LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: A) Data derived from more consistent experimental and observational studies; B) Data derived from less consistent experimental and observational studies; C) Case reports (uncontrolled studies); D) Expert opinion without explicit critical appraisal, or based on consensus, physiological studies or animal models. OBJECTIVE: To establish guidelines for the prevention and treatment of GIO.
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Substance users’ perspectives on helpful and unhelpful confrontation: implications for recovery.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

J Psychoactive Drugs. 2012 Apr-Jun; 44(2): 144-52
Polcin DL, Mulia N, Jones L

Substance users commonly face confrontations about their use from family, friends, peers, and professionals. Yet confrontation is controversial and not well understood. To better understand the effects of confrontation we conducted qualitative interviews with 38 substance users (82% male and 79% White) about their experiences of being confronted. Confrontation was defined as warnings about potential harm related to substance use. Results from coded transcripts indicated that helpful confrontations were those that were perceived as legitimate, offered hope and practical support, and were delivered by persons who were trusted and respected. Unhelpful confrontations were those that were perceived as hypocritical, overtly hostile, or occurring within embattled relationships. Experiences of directive, persistent confrontation varied. Limitations of the study include a small and relatively high functioning sample. We conclude that contextual factors are important in determining how confrontation is experienced. Larger studies with more diverse samples are warranted.
HubMed – drug alcohol rehabilitation



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