Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation: Formalization, Annotation and Analysis of Diverse Drug and Probe Screening Assay Datasets Using the BioAssay Ontology (BAO).

Formalization, Annotation and Analysis of Diverse Drug and Probe Screening Assay Datasets Using the BioAssay Ontology (BAO).

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

PLoS One. 2012; 7(11): e49198
Vempati UD, Przydzial MJ, Chung C, Abeyruwan S, Mir A, Sakurai K, Visser U, Lemmon VP, Schürer SC

Huge amounts of high-throughput screening (HTS) data for probe and drug development projects are being generated in the pharmaceutical industry and more recently in the public sector. The resulting experimental datasets are increasingly being disseminated via publically accessible repositories. However, existing repositories lack sufficient metadata to describe the experiments and are often difficult to navigate by non-experts. The lack of standardized descriptions and semantics of biological assays and screening results hinder targeted data retrieval, integration, aggregation, and analyses across different HTS datasets, for example to infer mechanisms of action of small molecule perturbagens. To address these limitations, we created the BioAssay Ontology (BAO). BAO has been developed with a focus on data integration and analysis enabling the classification of assays and screening results by concepts that relate to format, assay design, technology, target, and endpoint. Previously, we reported on the higher-level design of BAO and on the semantic querying capabilities offered by the ontology-indexed triple store of HTS data. Here, we report on our detailed design, annotation pipeline, substantially enlarged annotation knowledgebase, and analysis results. We used BAO to annotate assays from the largest public HTS data repository, PubChem, and demonstrate its utility to categorize and analyze diverse HTS results from numerous experiments. BAO is publically available from the NCBO BioPortal at http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/1533. BAO provides controlled terminology and uniform scope to report probe and drug discovery screening assays and results. BAO leverages description logic to formalize the domain knowledge and facilitate the semantic integration with diverse other resources. As a consequence, BAO offers the potential to infer new knowledge from a corpus of assay results, for example molecular mechanisms of action of perturbagens.
HubMed – drug


Cancer Risk of Anti-TNF-? at Recommended Doses in Adult Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Meta-Analysis with Intention to Treat and per Protocol Analyses.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

PLoS One. 2012; 7(11): e48991
Moulis G, Sommet A, Béné J, Montastruc F, Sailler L, Montastruc JL, Lapeyre-Mestre M

The risk of malignancies on TNF-? antagonists is controversial. The aim of this survey was to assess cancer risk on TNF-? antagonists in adult rheumatoid arthritis patients, including the five marketed drugs (infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, golimumab and certolizumab) used in line with the New Drug Application. Furthermore, the relative interest of modified intention to treat or per protocol analyses to assess such sparse events remains unknown.Data sources were MEDLINE, CENTRAL, ISI Web of Science, ACR and EULAR meeting abstracts, scientific evaluation of the drugs leading to their marketing approval, and clinicaltrials.gov, until 31 December 2012.We selected double-blind randomized controlled trials in adult rheumatoid arthritis patients, including at least one treatment arm in line with New Drug Application. We performed random effect meta-analysis, with modified intention to treat and per protocol analyses. Thirty-three trials were included. There was no excess risk of malignancies on anti-TNF-? administered in line with New Drug Application in the per protocol model (OR, 0.93 95%CI[0.59-1.44]), as well as in the modified intention to treat model (OR, 1.27 95%CI[0.82-1.98]). There was a non-significant tendency for an excess non-melanoma skin cancer risk in both models (respectively, 1.37 [0.71-2.66] and 1.90 [0.98-3.67]). With fixed effect Peto model restricting to trials during at least 52 weeks, the overall cancer risk was respectively 1.60 [0.97-2.64] and 1.22 [0.72-2.08]. Whatever the model, modified intention to treat analysis led to higher estimations than per protocol analysis. The later may underestimate the treatment effect when assessing very sparse events and when many patients dropped out in placebo arms. In metaregression, there was no differential risk among the five drugs.This study did not find any evidence for an excess cancer risk on TNF-? antagonists in adult rheumatoid arthritis patients, but an excess cancer risk after several years of exposure cannot be ruled out. Both modified intention to treat and per protocol analyses should be presented in such safety analyses.
HubMed – drug


Neurotensin and CRH Interactions Augment Human Mast Cell Activation.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

PLoS One. 2012; 7(11): e48934
Alysandratos KD, Asadi S, Angelidou A, Zhang B, Sismanopoulos N, Yang H, Critchfield A, Theoharides TC

Stress affects immunity, but the mechanism is not known. Neurotensin (NT) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) are secreted under stress in various tissues, and have immunomodulatory actions. We had previously shown that NT augments the ability of CRH to increase mast cell-dependent skin vascular permeability in rodents. Here we show that NT triggered human mast cell degranulation and significantly augmented CRH-induced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release. Investigation of various signaling molecules indicated that only NF-?B activation was involved. These effects were blocked by pretreatment with the NTR antagonist SR48692. NT induced expression of CRH receptor-1 (CRHR-1), as shown by Western blot and FACS analysis. Interestingly, CRH also induced NTR gene and protein expression. These results indicate unique interactions among NT, CRH, and mast cells that may contribute to auto-immune and inflammatory diseases that worsen with stress.
HubMed – drug


Colorectal cancer lymph node staining by activated carbon nanoparticles suspension in vivo or methylene blue in vitro.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

World J Gastroenterol. 2012 Nov 14; 18(42): 6148-54
Cai HK, He HF, Tian W, Zhou MQ, Hu Y, Deng YC

To investigate whether activated carbon nanoparticles suspension (ACNS) or methylene blue (MB) can increase the detected number of lymph nodes in colorectal cancer.Sixty-seven of 72 colorectal cancer patients treated at our hospital fulfilled the inclusion criteria of the study which was conducted from December 2010 to February 2012. Seven patients refused to participate. Eventually, 60 patients were included, and randomly assigned to three groups (20 in each group): ACNS group (group A), MB group (group B) and non-stained conventional surgical group (group C). In group A, patients received subserosal injection of 1 mL ACNS in a 4-quadrant region around the mass. In group B, the main artery of specimen was identified and isolated after the specimen was removed, and 2 mL MB was slowly injected into the isolated, stretched and fixed vessel. In group C, no ACNS and MB were injected. All the mesentery lymph nodes were isolated and removed systematically by visually inspecting and palpating the adipose tissue.No difference was observed among the three groups in age, gender, tumor location, tumor diameter, T-stage, degree of differentiation, postoperative complications and peritoneal drainage retention time. The total number of detected lymph nodes was 535, 476 and 223 in the three groups, respectively. The mean number of detected lymph nodes per patient was significantly higher in group A than in group C (26.8 ± 8.4 vs 12.2 ± 3.2, P < 0.001). Similarly, there were significantly more lymph nodes detected in group B than in group C (23.8 ± 6.9 vs 12.2 ± 3.2, P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference between group A and group B. There were 50, 46 and 32 metastatic lymph nodes dissected in 13 patients of group A, 10 patients of group B and 11 patients of group C, without significant differences among the three groups. Eleven of the 60 patients had insufficient number of detected lymph nodes (< 12). Only one patient with T(4a) rectal cancer had 10 lymph nodes detected in group B, the other 10 patients were all from group C. Based on the different diameter categories, the number of detected lymph nodes in groups A and B was significantly higher than in group C. However, there was no statistically significant difference between group A and group B. The metastatic lymph nodes were not significant different among the three groups. Similarly, tumor location, T stage and tumor differentiation did not affect the staining results. Body mass index was a minor influencing factor in the two different staining methods. The stained lymph nodes can easily be identified from the mesenteric adipose tissues, and the staining time for lymph nodes was not significantly different compared with unstained group. None of the patients in groups A and B had drug-related complications.Both activated carbon nanoparticles suspension in vivo and methylene blue in vitro can be used as tracers to increase the detected number of lymph nodes in colorectal cancer. HubMed – drug


Cost of treating chronic hepatitis B: Comparison of current treatment guidelines.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

World J Gastroenterol. 2012 Nov 14; 18(42): 6106-13
Robotin M, Patton Y, Kansil M, Penman A, George J

To compare program costs of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) screening and treatment using Australian and other published CHB treatment guidelines.Economic modeling demonstrated that in Australia a strategy of hepatocellular cancer (HCC) prevention in patients with CHB is more cost-effective than current standard care, or HCC screening. Based upon this model, we developed the B positive program to optimize CHB management of Australians born in countries of high CHB prevalence. We estimated CHB program costs using the B positive program algorithm and compared them to estimated costs of using the CHB treatment guidelines published by the Asian-Pacific, American and European Associations for the Study of Liver Disease (APASL, AASLD, EASL) and those suggested by an independent United States hepatology panel. We used a Markov model that factored in the costs of CHB screening and treatment, individualized by viral load and alanine aminotransferase levels, and calculated the relative costs of program components. Costs were discounted by 5% and calculated in Australian dollars (AUD).Using the B positive algorithm, total program costs amount to 13?979?224 AUD, or 9634 AUD per patient. The least costly strategy is based upon using the AASLD guidelines, which would cost 34% less than our B positive algorithm. Using the EASL and the United States Expert Group guidelines would increase program costs by 46%. The largest expenditure relates to the cost of drug treatment (66.9% of total program costs). The contribution of CHB surveillance (20.2%) and HCC screening and surveillance (6.6%) is small – and together they represent only approximately a quarter of the total program costs.The significant cost variations in CHB screening and treatment using different guidelines are relevant for clinicians and policy makers involved in designing population-based disease control programs.
HubMed – drug


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