Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation: Evaluation of the EndoPAT as a Tool to Assess Endothelial Function.

Evaluation of the EndoPAT as a Tool to Assess Endothelial Function.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

Int J Vasc Med. 2012; 2012: 904141
Moerland M, Kales AJ, Schrier L, van Dongen MG, Bradnock D, Burggraaf J

Endothelial dysfunction is a potential target for (pharmaceutical) intervention of several systemic pathological conditions. We investigated the feasibility of the EndoPAT to evaluate acute changes in endothelial function with repeated noninvasive measurements and assessed its discriminating power in different populations. Endothelial function was stable over a longer period of time in renally impaired patients (coefficient of variation 13%). Endothelial function in renally impaired and type 2 diabetic patients was not decreased compared to healthy volunteers (2.9 ± 1.4 and 1.8 ± 0.3, resp., versus 1.8 ± 0.5, P > 0.05). The EndoPAT did not detect an effect of robust interventions on endothelial function in healthy volunteers (glucose load: change from baseline 0.08 ± 0.50, 95% confidence interval -0.44 to 0.60; smoking: change from baseline 0.49 ± 0.92, 95% confidence interval -0.47 to 1.46). This suggests that at present the EndoPAT might not be suitable to assess (changes in) endothelial function in early-phase clinical pharmacology studies. Endothelial function as measured by the EndoPAT could be physiologically different from endothelial function as measured by conventional techniques. This should be investigated carefully before the EndoPAT can be considered a useful tool in drug development or clinical practice.
HubMed – drug


Novel intriguing strategies attenuating to sarcopenia.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

J Aging Res. 2012; 2012: 251217
Sakuma K, Yamaguchi A

Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass, is characterized by a deterioration of muscle quantity and quality leading to a gradual slowing of movement, a decline in strength and power, increased risk of fall-related injury, and, often, frailty. Since sarcopenia is largely attributed to various molecular mediators affecting fiber size, mitochondrial homeostasis, and apoptosis, the mechanisms responsible for these deleterious changes present numerous therapeutic targets for drug discovery. Resistance training combined with amino acid-containing supplements is often utilized to prevent age-related muscle wasting and weakness. In this review, we summarize more recent therapeutic strategies (myostatin or proteasome inhibition, supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or ursolic acid, etc.) for counteracting sarcopenia. Myostatin inhibitor is the most advanced research with a Phase I/II trial in muscular dystrophy but does not try the possibility for attenuating sarcopenia. EPA and ursolic acid seem to be effective as therapeutic agents, because they attenuate the degenerative symptoms of muscular dystrophy and cachexic muscle. The activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator 1? (PGC-1?) in skeletal muscle by exercise and/or unknown supplementation would be an intriguing approach to attenuating sarcopenia. In contrast, muscle loss with age may not be influenced positively by treatment with a proteasome inhibitor or antioxidant.
HubMed – drug


Proteomic and bioinformatics analyses of mouse liver microsomes.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

Int J Proteomics. 2012; 2012: 832569
Peng F, Zhan X, Li MY, Fang F, Li G, Li C, Zhang PF, Chen Z

Microsomes are derived mostly from endoplasmic reticulum and are an ideal target to investigate compound metabolism, membrane-bound enzyme functions, lipid-protein interactions, and drug-drug interactions. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of the liver and its diseases, mouse liver microsomes were isolated and enriched with differential centrifugation and sucrose gradient centrifugation, and microsome membrane proteins were further extracted from isolated microsomal fractions by the carbonate method. The enriched microsome proteins were arrayed with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) and carbonate-extracted microsome membrane proteins with one-dimensional gel electrophoresis (1DE). A total of 183 2DE-arrayed proteins and 99 1DE-separated proteins were identified with tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 259 nonredundant microsomal proteins were obtained and represent the proteomic profile of mouse liver microsomes, including 62 definite microsome membrane proteins. The comprehensive bioinformatics analyses revealed the functional categories of those microsome proteins and provided clues into biological functions of the liver. The systematic analyses of the proteomic profile of mouse liver microsomes not only reveal essential, valuable information about the biological function of the liver, but they also provide important reference data to analyze liver disease-related microsome proteins for biomarker discovery and mechanism clarification of liver disease.
HubMed – drug


Nevirapine-Based Antiretroviral Therapy Impacts Artesunate and Dihydroartemisinin Disposition in HIV-Infected Nigerian Adults.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

AIDS Res Treat. 2012; 2012: 703604
Fehintola FA, Scarsi KK, Ma Q, Parikh S, Morse GD, Taiwo B, Akinola IT, Adewole IF, Lindegardh N, Phakderaj A, Ojengbede O, Murphy RL, Akinyinka OO, Aweeka FT

Background. Nevirapine- (NVP-) based antiretroviral therapy (ART) and artesunate-amodiaquine are frequently coprescribed in areas of HIV and malaria endemicity. We explored the impact of this practice on artesunate and dihydroartemisinin pharmacokinetics. Methods. We conducted a parallel-group pharmacokinetic comparison between HIV-infected patients receiving NVP-based ART (n = 10) and ART-naive controls (n = 11). Artesunate-amodiaquine 200/600?mg was given daily for three days. Measurement of drug concentrations occurred between 0 and 96 hours after the final dose. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using noncompartmental analysis. Results. Comparing the NVP group to controls, clearance of artesunate was reduced 50% (1950 versus 2995 L/h; P = 0.03), resulting in a 45% increase in the AUC(0-96) (105 versus 69?ug(?)hr/L; P = 0.02). The half-life of dihydroartemisinin was shorter in the NVP group (1.6 versuss 3.2?h; P = 0.004), but other dihydroartemisinin pharmacokinetic parameters were unchanged. A lower conversion of artesunate to dihydroartemisinin was observed in the NVP group (dihydroartemisinin: artesunate AUC(0-96) = 5.6 versuss 8.5 in NVP and control groups, respectively, P = 0.008). Conclusion. Although NVP-containing ART impacted some pharmacokinetic parameters of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin, overall exposure was similar or better in the NVP group.
HubMed – drug



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