Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation: Epidemiological Characteristics of Novel Influenza a (H1N1) in Antiviral Drug Users in Korea.

Epidemiological Characteristics of Novel Influenza A (H1N1) in Antiviral Drug Users in Korea.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

PLoS One. 2012; 7(10): e47634
Choi K, Cho SI, Hashizume M, Kim H

Soon after the first novel influenza A (H1N1) death was documented in Korea on August 15, 2009, prompt treatment with antiviral drugs was recommended when an infection was suspected. Free antiviral drugs were distributed to patients who met the case definition in the treatment guidelines, and patients prescribed the antiviral drugs were included in the Antiviral Drug Surveillance System (ADSS). A total of 2,825,821 patients were reported to the ADSS from September 1 to December 31, 2009. Odds ratios were calculated to compare the risks of severe diseases, as indicated by general hospital admissions or intensive care unit (ICU) admissions according to demographic characteristics, underlying medical conditions, and behavioral factors. Approximately 6% of the total population received antiviral drugs during the study period. Of these, 2,709,611 (95.9%) were outpatients, 114,840 (4.06%) were hospitalized, and 1,370 (0.05%) were admitted to the ICU. Children aged 0-9 yr accounted for 33.94% of all reported cases, whereas only 3.89% of the patients were ? 60 yr. The estimated incidence of novel influenza A (H1N1) during the pandemic was 5.68/100 of all reported cases. Mortality due to influenza A (H1N1) during the pandemic was 0.33/100,000, with the highest mortality of 1.31/100,000 for patients aged ? 60 years. Severe pandemic H1N1 influenza was associated with the presence of one or more underlying medical conditions in elderly aged ? 60 years and with lower economic status. Moreover, influenza A (H1N1) appeared to be age-specific in terms of mortality. Although the incidence and admission rates of influenza A (H1N1) were higher in younger age groups, fatal cases were much more likely to occur in the elderly (?60 years). In contrast to earlier influenza A (H1N1) reports, the risks of a severe outcome were elevated among those who were underweight (body mass index < 18.5 kg/m(2)). HubMed – drug


Detoxifying Antitumoral Drugs via Nanoconjugation: The Case of Gold Nanoparticles and Cisplatin.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

PLoS One. 2012; 7(10): e47562
Comenge J, Sotelo C, Romero F, Gallego O, Barnadas A, Parada TG, Domínguez F, Puntes VF

Nanoparticles (NPs) have emerged as a potential tool to improve cancer treatment. Among the proposed uses in imaging and therapy, their use as a drug delivery scaffold has been extensively highlighted. However, there are still some controversial points which need a deeper understanding before clinical application can occur. Here the use of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to detoxify the antitumoral agent cisplatin, linked to a nanoparticle via a pH-sensitive coordination bond for endosomal release, is presented. The NP conjugate design has important effects on pharmacokinetics, conjugate evolution and biodistribution and results in an absence of observed toxicity. Besides, AuNPs present unique opportunities as drug delivery scaffolds due to their size and surface tunability. Here we show that cisplatin-induced toxicity is clearly reduced without affecting the therapeutic benefits in mice models. The NPs not only act as carriers, but also protect the drug from deactivation by plasma proteins until conjugates are internalized in cells and cisplatin is released. Additionally, the possibility to track the drug (Pt) and vehicle (Au) separately as a function of organ and time enables a better understanding of how nanocarriers are processed by the organism.
HubMed – drug


Comparison of conventional chemotherapy, stealth liposomes and temperature-sensitive liposomes in a mathematical model.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

PLoS One. 2012; 7(10): e47453
Gasselhuber A, Dreher MR, Rattay F, Wood BJ, Haemmerich D

Various liposomal drug carriers have been developed to overcome short plasma half-life and toxicity related side effects of chemotherapeutic agents. We developed a mathematical model to compare different liposome formulations of doxorubicin (DOX): conventional chemotherapy (Free-DOX), Stealth liposomes (Stealth-DOX), temperature sensitive liposomes (TSL) with intra-vascular triggered release (TSL-i), and TSL with extra-vascular triggered release (TSL-e). All formulations were administered as bolus at a dose of 9 mg/kg. For TSL, we assumed locally triggered release due to hyperthermia for 30 min. Drug concentrations were determined in systemic plasma, aggregate body tissue, cardiac tissue, tumor plasma, tumor interstitial space, and tumor cells. All compartments were assumed perfectly mixed, and represented by ordinary differential equations. Contribution of liposomal extravasation was negligible in the case of TSL-i, but was the major delivery mechanism for Stealth-DOX and for TSL-e. The dominant delivery mechanism for TSL-i was release within the tumor plasma compartment with subsequent tissue- and cell uptake of released DOX. Maximum intracellular tumor drug concentrations for Free-DOX, Stealth-DOX, TSL-i, and TSL-e were 3.4, 0.4, 100.6, and 15.9 µg/g, respectively. TSL-i and TSL-e allowed for high local tumor drug concentrations with reduced systemic exposure compared to Free-DOX. While Stealth-DOX resulted in high tumor tissue concentrations compared to Free-DOX, only a small fraction was bioavailable, resulting in little cellular uptake. Consistent with clinical data, Stealth-DOX resulted in similar tumor intracellular concentrations as Free-DOX, but with reduced systemic exposure. Optimal release time constants for maximum cellular uptake for Stealth-DOX, TSL-e, and TSL-i were 45 min, 11 min, and <3 s, respectively. Optimal release time constants were shorter for MDR cells, with ?4 min for Stealth-DOX and for TSL-e. Tissue concentrations correlated well quantitatively with a prior in-vivo study. Mathematical models may thus allow optimization of drug delivery systems to achieve a better therapeutic index. HubMed – drug


Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor and HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitor as Adjunct Treatment for Persons with HIV Infection: A Feasibility Randomized Trial.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

PLoS One. 2012; 7(10): e46894
Baker JV, Huppler Hullsiek K, Prosser R, Duprez D, Grimm R, Tracy RP, Rhame F, Henry K, Neaton JD

Treatments that reduce inflammation and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among individuals with HIV infection receiving effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) are needed.We conducted a 2×2 factorial feasibility study of lisinopril (L) (10 mg daily) vs L-placebo in combination with pravastatin (P) (20 mg daily) vs P-placebo among participants receiving ART with undetectable HIV RNA levels, a Framingham 10 year risk score (FRS) ?3%, and no indication for ACE-I or statin therapy. Tolerability and adherence were evaluated. Longitudinal mixed models assessed changes in blood pressure (BP), blood lipids, and inflammatory biomarkers from baseline through months 1 and 4.Thirty-seven participants were randomized and 34 [lisinopril/pravastatin (n?=?9), lisinopril/P-placebo (n?=?8), L-placebo/pravastatin (n?=?9), L-placebo/P-placebo (n?=?8)] attended at least one follow-up visit. Participants were 97% male, 41% white, 67% were current smokers, and 65% were taking a protease inhibitor. Median age was 48 years, CD4 count 483 cells/mm(3), FRS 7.79%, total cholesterol 184 mg/dL, and LDL-C 95 mg/dL. There was no treatment difference for pravastatin vs P-placebo in total cholesterol, LDL-C, or any of the inflammatory biomarkers. Participants randomized to lisinopril vs. L-placebo had significant declines in diastolic BP (-3.3 mmHg, p?=?0.05), hsCRP (-0.61 µg/mL, p?=?0.02) and TNF-? (-0.17 pg/mL, p?=?0.04). Participants taking lisinopril vs L-placebo were more likely to report missed doses (88 vs 35%; p?=?0.001) and have adherence <90% by pill count (42 vs. 0%; p?=?0.02). Few participants from either group reported side effects (n?=?3 vs. n?=?1).The modest BP changes and decreased adherence with lisinopril and absence of lipid differences with pravastatin suggest future studies of these drug classes should consider a run-in period to assess adherence and use a different statin. Our results also indicate that ACE-I therapy may have anti-inflammatory benefits for ART-treated persons with HIV infection and this should be further evaluated.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00982189. HubMed – drug



Psychodrama Therapy Session at Clarity Way Drug & Alcohol Rehab – At Clarity Way Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation Center, we implement a number of proven techniques to help our clients free themselves from substance abuse. Psychodrama Therapy is one such technique that has over time helped countless individuals through successful drug and alcohol rehab. Psychodrama Therapy is safe for all ages if implemented correctly in a safe and supportive environment. Clients at Clarity Way can utilize Psychodrama Therapy through group, individual, and family sessions. These sessions empower our clients to confront unresolved issues through real life situations and reenactments. This process provides a means to create healthy alternatives for clients struggling with drug or alcohol abuse. If you’d like to learn more about Psychodrama Therapy for you or a loved one struggling with drug and alcohol abuse, visit www.ClarityWay.com or call our 24 hour help line at 1-877-594-9699.


More Drug And Alcohol Rehabilitation Information…