Don’t Be Too Strict With Yourself! Rigid Negative Self-Representation in Healthy Subjects Mimics the Neurocognitive Profile of Depression for Autobiographical Memory.

Don’t be Too Strict with Yourself! Rigid Negative Self-Representation in Healthy Subjects Mimics the Neurocognitive Profile of Depression for Autobiographical Memory.

Front Behav Neurosci. 2013; 7: 41
Sperduti M, Martinelli P, Kalenzaga S, Devauchelle AD, Lion S, Malherbe C, Gallarda T, Amado I, Krebs MO, Oppenheim C, Piolino P

Autobiographical memory (AM) comprises representation of both specific (episodic) and generic (semantic) personal information. Depression is characterized by a shift from episodic to semantic AM retrieval. According to theoretical models, this process (“overgeneralization”), would be linked to reduced executive resources. Moreover, “overgeneral” memories, accompanied by a negativity bias in depression, lead to a pervasive negative self-representation. As executive functions and AM specificity are also closely intricate among “non-clinical” populations, “overgeneral” memories could result in depressive emotional responses. Consequently, our hypothesis was that the neurocognitive profile of healthy subjects showing a rigid negative self-image would mimic that of patients. Executive functions and self-image were measured and brain activity was recorded, by means of fMRI, during episodic AMs retrieval in young healthy subjects. The results show an inverse correlation, that is, a more rigid and negative self-image produces lower performances in both executive and specific memories. Moreover, higher negative self-image is associated with decreased activity in the left ventro-lateral prefrontal and in the anterior cingulate cortex, repeatedly shown to exhibit altered functioning in depression. Activity in these regions, on the contrary, positively correlates with executive and memory performances, in line with their role in executive functions and AM retrieval. These findings suggest that rigid negative self-image could represent a marker or a vulnerability trait of depression by being linked to reduced executive function efficiency and episodic AM decline. These results are encouraging for psychotherapeutic approaches aimed at cognitive flexibility in depression and other psychiatric disorders. HubMed – depression


The effects of maternal depression and maternal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor exposure on offspring.

Front Cell Neurosci. 2013; 7: 73
Olivier JD, Akerud H, Kaihola H, Pawluski JL, Skalkidou A, Högberg U, Sundström-Poromaa I

It has been estimated that 20% of pregnant women suffer from depression and it is well-documented that maternal depression can have long-lasting effects on the child. Currently, common treatment for maternal depression has been the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications (SSRIs) which are used by 2-3% of pregnant women in the Nordic countries and by up to 10% of pregnant women in the United States. Antidepressants cross the placenta and are transferred to the fetus, thus, the question arises as to whether children of women taking antidepressants are at risk for altered neurodevelopmental outcomes and, if so, whether the risks are due to SSRI medication exposure or to the underlying maternal depression. This review considers the effects of maternal depression and SSRI exposure on offspring development in both clinical and preclinical populations. As it is impossible in humans to study the effects of SSRIs without taking into account the possible underlying effects of maternal depression (healthy pregnant women do not take SSRIs), animal models are of great value. For example, rodents can be used to determine the effects of maternal depression and/or perinatal SSRI exposure on offspring outcomes. Unraveling the joint (or separate) effects of maternal depression and SSRI exposure will provide more insights into the risks or benefits of SSRI exposure during gestation and will help women make informed decisions about using SSRIs during pregnancy. HubMed – depression


Association Between Functional Impairment, Depression, and Extrapyramidal Signs in Neuroleptic-Free Patients With Alzheimer Disease.

J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 2013 Jun 3;
Choi J, Myung W, Chung JW, Kang HS, Na DL, Kim SY, Lee JH, Han SH, Choi SH, Kim S, Kim S, Carroll BJ, Kim DK

Background:Extrapyramidal signs (EPSs) are commonly observed in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). We report here the base rate of EPS in a large cohort of patients with AD who were not receiving neuroleptic drugs, and the associations of EPS with functional outcomes and depressive symptoms.Methods:In a consortium involving 56 clinics, we recruited 2614 patients with AD. We estimated basic activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADL by the Barthel index and the Seoul-Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (S-IADL) scales, respectively. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). The EPS group was defined by the presence of at least 1 EPS based on a focused neurologic examination.Results:The prevalence of EPS-positive patients was 12%. These had lower Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE) scores than the EPS-negative cases (P < .001). After controlling for demographic, medical, radiological, genetic, and cognitive (K-MMSE) factors, the proportion of patients with impaired ADL was significantly higher in the EPS group than in the non-EPS group (P < .001, odds ratio = 1.90, 95% confidence interval, 1.45-2.48, and logistic regression). The S-IADL scores were significantly higher in the EPS group than this in the non-EPS group (P < .001, regression coefficient = 3.19, and median regression). The GDS-15 scores were higher in the EPS group (P = .04, regression coefficient = 0.89, and median regression).Conclusion:The presence of EPS in patients with AD who were not receiving neuroleptic drugs was associated with more impaired basic and instrumental ADL functioning and with greater depression symptoms. HubMed – depression