Do Hormone Treatments for Prostate Cancer Cause Anxiety and Depression?

Do hormone treatments for prostate cancer cause anxiety and depression?

Int J Clin Oncol. 2013 Jun 1;
Sharpley CF, Christie DR, Bitsika V

BACKGROUND: To investigate the relationship between hormone therapy (HT) and incidence of anxiety and depression among prostate cancer patients (PCa). METHODS: 526 PCa patients completed a survey about their cancer status, treatment received, anxiety, and depression status. Total scores on anxiety and depression inventories, plus symptom profiles that discriminated between patients with current HT, past HT, and never having received HT, were compiled for analysis. RESULTS: Patients who were currently receiving HT had significantly higher total anxiety and depression scores than patients who had previously received HT or who had never received HT. Analysis of the symptoms of anxiety and depression which distinguished between these groups of patients suggested that patients who had never received HT had significantly lower scores than current or past HT patients. Although several symptoms could be directly allocated to PCa and/or HT, symptom profiles were indicative of clinically significant anxiety and/or depression in patients who were currently receiving, or who had previously received, HT. CONCLUSION: Current HT may lead to symptoms of anxiety and/or depression which require clinical attention. These effects seem to decrease after completion of HT. HubMed – depression


Telephone delivered interventions for preventing HIV infection in HIV-negative persons.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013; 5: CD009190
van-Velthoven MH, Tudor Car L, Gentry S, Car J

BACKGROUND: This is one of the three Cochrane reviews that examine the role of the telephone in HIV/AIDS services. Although HIV infection can be prevented, still a large number of new infections occur. More effective HIV prevention interventions are needed to reduce the number of people newly infected with HIV. Phone calls can be used to potentially more effectively deliver HIV prevention interventions. They have the potential to save time, reduce costs and facilitate easier access. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of voice landline and mobile telephone delivered HIV prevention interventions in HIV-negative persons. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, PubMed Central, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health, the World Health Organization’s Global Health Library and Current Controlled Trials from 1980 to June 2011. We searched the following grey literature sources: Dissertation Abstracts International and the Centre for Agricultural Bioscience International Direct Global Health database, the System for Information on Grey Literature Europe, The Healthcare Management Information Consortium, Google Scholar, Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections database, International AIDS Society conference database, AIDS Education Global Information System and reference lists of articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-randomised controlled trials, controlled before and after studies, and interrupted time series studies comparing the effectiveness of delivering HIV prevention by phone calls to usual care in HIV-negative people regardless of their demographic characteristics and in all settings. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two reviewers independently searched databases, screened citations, assessed study quality and extracted data. A third reviewer resolved any disagreement. Primary outcomes were knowledge about the causes and consequences of HIV/AIDS, change in behaviour, healthcare uptake and clinical outcomes. Secondary outcomes were users’ and providers’ views on the intervention, economic outcomes and adverse outcomes. MAIN RESULTS: Out of 14,717 citations, only one study met the inclusion criteria. The included RCT recruited women and girl children who received post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) after rape from sexual assault services in South Africa between August 2007 and May 2008.Participants (n (number) =274) were randomised into a telephone support (n=136) and control (n=138) group. Control group participants received usual care (an interactive information session) from the sexual assault service during the 28 days in which they had to take PEP, with no further contact from the study staff. Telephone support group participants received standard care and phone calls from a counsellor throughout the 28 days when they had to take PEP.Overall, adherence to PEP was not significantly (P=0.13) different between the intervention (38.2%) and control (31.9 %) groups. Also, the proportion of participants who read a pamphlet, did not return to collect medication or with a depression were not significantly different between the intervention and control groups (P=0.006, P=0.42, P=0.72 respectively). The proportion of participants who used a diary was significantly (P=0.001) higher in the intervention group (78.8%) versus the control group (69.9%). The study authors reported that there were no recorded adverse events. The RCT did not provide information about participants’ and providers’ evaluation outcomes, or economic outcomes. The study had a moderate risk of bias. AUTHORS’ CONCLUSIONS: We found only one RCT, with a moderate risk of bias, which showed that providing PEP support by phone calls did not result in higher adherence to PEP. However, the RCT was conducted in an upper-middle-income country with high HIV prevalence, on a high-risk population and the applicability of its results on other settings and contexts is unclear. There is a need for robust evidence from various settings on the effectiveness of using phone calls for providing PEP support and for other HIV prevention interventions. HubMed – depression


Antidepressants for polycystic ovary syndrome.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013; 5: CD008575
Zhuang J, Wang X, Xu L, Wu T, Kang D

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of depression in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is high; one study has shown it to be four times that of women without PCOS. Therefore, systematic evaluation of the effectiveness and safety of antidepressants for women with PCOS is important. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of antidepressants in treating depression and other symptoms in women with PCOS. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases from inception to June 2012: the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (, the National Institute of Health Clinical Trials register ( and the World Health Organization International Trials Registry Platform search portal ( SELECTION CRITERIA: Only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) studying the effectiveness and safety of antidepressants for women with PCOS were included in this review. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The methodological quality of the trials was assessed independently by two review authors, in parallel with data extraction. The risk of bias in the included study was assessed in six domains: 1. sequence generation; 2. allocation concealment; 3. blinding of participants, personnel and outcome assessors; 4. completeness of outcome data; 5. selective outcome reporting; 6. other potential sources of bias. MAIN RESULTS: We found no studies reporting any of our primary review outcomes (depression and allied mood disorder scores, quality of life and adverse events). Only one study with 16 women was eligible for inclusion. This study compared sibutramine versus fluoxetine in women with PCOS, and reported only endocrine and metabolic outcomes. It was unclear whether the participants had psychological problems at baseline. No significant difference was found between the groups for any of the measured outcomes. AUTHORS’ CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence on the effectiveness and safety of antidepressants in treating depression and other symptoms in women with PCOS. HubMed – depression


Pharmacological treatment of depression in patients with a primary brain tumour.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013; 5: CD006932
Rooney A, Grant R

BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 3, 2010.Patients with a primary brain tumour often experience depression, for which drug treatment may be prescribed. However, these patients are also at high risk of epileptic seizures, cognitive impairment and fatigue, all of which are potential side effects of antidepressants. The benefit, or harm, of pharmacological treatment of depression in brain tumour patients is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of pharmacological treatment of depression in patients with a primary brain tumour. SEARCH METHODS: We updated the search to include the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 10), MEDLINE to October 2012, EMBASE to October 2012 and PsycINFO to October 2012. We searched the British Nursing Index, LILACS, PSYNDEX, the NHS National Research Register, the NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination’s Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE) and Web of Knowledge (covering Science Scisearch, Social Sciences Citation Index and Biological Abstracts) for the original review (to July 2009). In the original review we also handsearched Neuro-oncology, the Journal of Neuro-oncology, the Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry and the Journal of Clinical Oncology (July 1999 to June 2009) and wrote to all the pharmaceutical companies manufacturing antidepressants for use in the UK. SELECTION CRITERIA: We searched for all randomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials, cohort studies and case-control studies of any pharmacological treatment of depression in patients with a histologically diagnosed primary brain tumour. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: No studies met the inclusion criteria. MAIN RESULTS: We found no eligible studies evaluating the benefits of any pharmacological treatment of depression in brain tumour patients. AUTHORS’ CONCLUSIONS: No high-quality studies have examined the value of pharmacological treatment of depression in patients with a primary brain tumour. RCTs and detailed prospective studies are required to inform the effective pharmacological treatment of this common and important complication of brain tumours. Since the last version of this review none of the new relevant studies have provided additional information to change these conclusions. HubMed – depression