Do Children Have the Same Vulnerability to Metabolic Drug–Drug Interactions as Adults? a Critical Analysis of the Literature.

Do children have the same vulnerability to metabolic drug–drug interactions as adults? A critical analysis of the literature.

J Clin Pharmacol. 2013 May; 53(5): 559-66
Salem F, Rostami-Hodjegan A, Johnson TN

Many drug–drug interactions (DDIs) in the pediatric population are managed based on data generated in adults. However, due to developmental changes in elimination pathways from birth to adolesence, and variable weight?adjusted dose of interacting drugs, the assumption of DDIs being similar in adults and pediatrics might not be correct. This study compares the magnitude of reported DDIs in pediatric and adult populations. A systematic literature review was undertaken to identify reports of DDIs in pediatric subjects. A total of 145 reports of DDIs were identified over the age range of birth to 20 years. The magnitude of DDIs for 24 drug pairs from 31 different pediatric studies could be assessed and compared with those in adults where corresponding data existed. The magnitude of the DDI, as measured by a relevant parameter (e.g., AUC, CL) in the presence and absence of inhibitor,were higher (>1.25?fold), similar (0.8? to 1.25?fold) or lower (<0.8?fold) than the corresponding ratio in adults in 10, 15, and 8 cases respectively. An age?related trend in the magnitude of DDIs could not be established. However, the study highlighted the clear paucity of the data in children younger than 2 years. Care should be exercised when applying the knowledge of DDIs from adults to children younger than 2 years of age. HubMed – drug


Current and future asthma therapies.

Drugs Today (Barc). 2013 May; 49(5): 325-39
Kandeel M, Balaha M, Inagaki N, Kitade Y

Corticosteroids (CST) are the gold standard for asthma management and for several decades have been considered the cornerstone for asthma control. With the recent advent of genomic and structural analysis technologies, the molecular basis of the side effects, toxicity and resistance mechanisms of drug treatment are better understood. With respect to CST, there is consistent evidence that while CST therapy improves asthma symptoms, it does not alter the natural course of asthma or offer clear long-lasting improvement of respiratory performance. Therefore, the development of drugs capable of minimizing or avoiding CST side effects, toxicity and resistance could be the way forward for establishing new asthma therapies. This review summarizes the molecular basis of corticosteroid mechanisms of action and the related mechanisms influencing side effects and resistance. The future of CST adjunctive or replacement therapy is also briefly discussed. HubMed – drug


Dapagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

Drugs Today (Barc). 2013 May; 49(5): 289-301
Demaris KM, White JR

Dapagliflozin is a selective, competitive inhibitor of sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) acting to block reabsorption of filtered glucose in the kidney. Independent of pancreatic ? cell function or the modulation of insulin sensitivity, this novel treatment strategy promotes glucosuria and direct lowering of plasma glucose concentrations. Dapagliflozin has been approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in the European Union; however, the United States Food and Drug Administration rejected the approval of dapagliflozin based on lack of clinical data to effectively assess the benefit-to-risk profile. This manuscript will highlight the physiology of renal glucose regulation and reabsorption, briefly outline the pharmacology of dapagliflozin and discuss the results of completed clinical trials as well as the current status of the drug. HubMed – drug


Microbiology of chronic suppurative otitis media in a tertiary care setup of uttarakhand state, India.

N Am J Med Sci. 2013 Apr; 5(4): 282-7
Prakash R, Juyal D, Negi V, Pal S, Adekhandi S, Sharma M, Sharma N

Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is a notorious infection and a major health problem in developing countries causing serious local damage and threatening complications. Early and effective treatment based on the knowledge of causative micro-organisms and their antimicrobial sensitivity ensures prompt clinical recovery and possible complications can thus be avoided.The aim of this study was to isolate the organisms associated with CSOM and to detect the antibiogram of the aerobic isolates.A total of 204 patients clinically diagnosed of CSOM were enrolled in the study and the samples were obtained from each patient using sterile cotton swabs and cultured for microbial flora. Drug susceptibility testing for aerobic isolates was conducted using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method.The most common causative organisms isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (48.69%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (19.89%) amongst the 191 aerobic isolates. Anaerobes accounted for 29.41% of the isolates while 12.25% were fungi. Antimicrobial profile of aerobic isolates revealed maximum sensitivity to amikacin (95.5%), ceftriaxone (83.4%) and gentamicin (82.7%).Knowing the etiological agents of CSOM and their antimicrobial susceptibility is of essential importance for an efficient treatment, prevention of both complications and development of antibiotic resistance and finally, the reduction of the treatment costs. HubMed – drug