Diversity in Causes and Characteristics of Drug-Induced Deaths in an Urban Setting.

Diversity in causes and characteristics of drug-induced deaths in an urban setting.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Scand J Public Health. 2013 Jan 9;
Gjersing L, Jonassen KV, Biong S, Ravndal E, Waal H, Bramness JG, Clausen T

Aims: To assess demographic characteristics, treatment utilization and circumstances of death among those who died from drug-induced deaths in an urban setting and to identify possible subpopulations that should be targeted specifically to further develop preventive public health policies. Methods: Subjects (N = 231) who died, from drug-induced deaths, in the Norwegian capital Oslo (2006-2008) were identified through the National Cause of Death Registry. Data on toxicology, prison release and contact with health and social services in Oslo were collected. Results: Majority of cases were men (78%) and the mean age was 37 years. Nearly all cases (90%) were polydrug intoxications. Heroin was implicated in 67%. Residential address was the most common place of death (67%). Most cases (82%) had been in contact with health and social services in the year before death. Women were 4 years older, more often Oslo residents (82% vs. 64%) and fewer died from heroin intoxication. Non-Oslo residents were younger and more likely to have been found outdoors with heroin as the main intoxicant. Other identified subpopulations were those who died after prison release and those discharged from drug treatment. Conclusions: The findings suggest that the majority of cases could have been available for preventive measures through their contacts with health and social services. Yet, the heterogeneity among cases indicates that such measures need to be multifaceted. Finally, it is important for policymakers and health and social workers in various countries to consider subpopulations such as women and non-city residents when developing public health interventions to prevent overdose deaths.
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Attachment style, anxiety coping, and personality-styles in withdrawn alcohol addicted inpatients.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. 2013 Jan 10; 8(1): 1
Wedekind D, Bandelow B, Heitmann S, Havemann-Reinecke U, Engel KR, Huether G

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Insecure early attachment experiences have been reported to play an important role in the manifestation in alcoholism. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of attachment styles with anxiety, anxiety coping and dysfunctional personality styles, as well as with the prevalence of personality disorders, and adverse life-events in adolescence. METHODS: 59 inpatient alcohol addicted male (n=43) and female (n=16) patients were characterized by an attachment style scale (Relationships-style-questionnaire-RSQ) and completed a questionnaire battery comprising the State-Trait-Anxiety-Inventory (STAI), the Anxiety-Coping-Inventory (ABI), Temperament-and-character-inventory (TCI), Personality-system-interaction-inventory (PSI), and gave information on sociodemography, alcohol history, and adolescent adverse events. A structured interview (SKID-II) was performed to diagnose personality disorders. RESULTS: Only 33% of subjects had a secure attachment style. Insecure attachment was associated with significantly higher trait-anxiety, higher cognitive avoidance to control anxiety, and higher values on most personality style dimensions directed to the pathological pole. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the limitation due to a small sample size, the results of this study show that the consideration of attachment styles is of significance in the diagnosis and therapy of alcohol addiction. Attachment may characterize different styles to control emotional aspects, anxiety cues and interpersonal relationships in individuals suffering from alcohol addiction.
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Topiramate in schizophrenia.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Clin Schizophr Relat Psychoses. 2013 Jan; 6(4): 186-96
Hahn MK, Cohn T, Teo C, Remington G

Less than half of patients with schizophrenia obtain full response to antipsychotic drugs and, while clozapine represents the treatment of choice for refractory psychosis, a significant number of individuals remain only partially responsive. Despite a need for augmentation in this subpopulation, to date clear choices have not been forthcoming. Because clozapine, along with the majority of second-generation agents (SGAs), are linked to metabolic disturbances, augmentation strategies that do not further exacerbate these side effects are needed. Topiramate, unlike other anticonvulsants used for augmentation purposes, has been associated with weight loss. This article reviews the safety and efficacy of topiramate in treatment-refractory schizophrenia, including effects on metabolic disturbances, which burden this population. While current evidence specifically examining improvements in psychopathology demonstrates small to moderate benefits with topiramate augmentation, a growing body of evidence suggests that topiramate may have beneficial effects on antipsychotic-induced weight gain. We conclude that topiramate’s metabolic profile, taken together with a current lack of evidence supporting a particular augmentation strategy, argues for further well-controlled studies examining its potential as an augmentation strategy in schizophrenia.
HubMed – addiction


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