Disrupted Circadian Rhythmicity of the Intestinal Glucose Transporter SGLT1 in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats.

Disrupted Circadian Rhythmicity of the Intestinal Glucose Transporter SGLT1 in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats.

Dig Dis Sci. 2013 Apr 30;
Bhutta HY, Deelman TE, Ashley SW, Rhoads DB, Tavakkoli A

BACKGROUND: Intestinal absorptive capacity shows a circadian rhythm synchronized with eating patterns. Disrupting these coordinated rhythms, e.g., with shift work, may contribute to metabolic disease. Circadian expression of nutrient transporters has not been studied in metabolic disease. We studied the circadian rhythm of intestinal transporter sodium glucose co-transporter type 1 (SGLT1) in an obese diabetic rat. METHODS: We compared obese Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats to lean ZDF littermates. Temporal feeding patterns were assessed, then rats were harvested at Zeitgeber (ZT, ZT0 = 7:00 a.m.) 3, 9, or 15 to measure insulin resistance, SGLT1 expression and intestinal glucose absorption capacity. Regulators of SGLT1 (sweet taste receptor T1R2/3; clock genes) were measured to elucidate underlying mechanisms. RESULTS: Both groups exhibited altered circadian food intake. Obese ZDF rats lost circadian rhythmicity of SGLT1 mRNA expression and functional activity. Lean ZDF rats maintained rhythmicity of SGLT1 mRNA expression but that of functional glucose absorption was blunted. Circadian rhythms of intestinal clock genes were maintained in both groups. Neither group had discernible rhythms of intestinal GLUT2 (glucose transporter) or T1R2 (sweet taste receptor component) mRNA expression. In summary, lean and obese ZDF rats exhibited similar disruptions in circadian feeding. Glucose intolerance was evident in lean rats, but only obese rats further developed diabetes and exhibited disrupted circadian rhythmicity of both SGLT1 mRNA expression and function. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that disrupted circadian feeding rhythms contribute to glucose intolerance, but additional factors (genetics, changes in nutrient sensing/transport) are needed to lead to full diabetes. HubMed – eating


Reliability and validity of a short FFQ for assessing the dietary habits of 2-5-year-old children, Sydney, Australia.

Public Health Nutr. 2013 May 1; 1-12
Flood VM, Wen LM, Hardy LL, Rissel C, Simpson JM, Baur LA

OBJECTIVE: A simple FFQ which ranks young children’s dietary habits is necessary for population-based monitoring and intervention programmes. The aim of the present study was to determine the reliability and validity of a short FFQ to assess the dietary habits of young children aged 2-5 years. DESIGN: Parents completed a seventeen-item FFQ for their children by telephone on two occasions, two weeks apart. Sixty-four parents also completed 3 d food records for their children. The FFQ included daily servings of fruit and vegetables, frequency of eating lean meat, processed meats, take-away food, snack foods (biscuits, cakes, doughnuts, muesli bars), potato crisps and confectionery, and cups of soft drinks/cordials, juice, milk and water. Weighted kappa and intra-class correlation coefficients were used to assess FFQ reliability and the Bland-Altman method was used to assess validity of the FFQ compared with the 3 d food record. SETTING: Seven pre-school centres in metropolitan Sydney, Australia. SUBJECTS: Seventy-seven children aged 2-5 years. RESULTS: The majority of questions had moderate to good reliability: ? w ranged from 0·37 (lean meat) to 0·85 (take-away food consumption). Validity analysis showed a significant increase in mean values from the food record with increasing ordered categories from the FFQ for servings of vegetables and fruit and cups of drinks (all trend P ? 0·01). Spearman rank correlation coefficient was >0·5 for vegetables, fruit, diet soft drinks and fruit juice. CONCLUSIONS: The FFQ provides reliable and moderately valid information about the dietary intakes and habits of children aged 2-5 years, in particular for fruit, vegetables and beverages. HubMed – eating


Supplementation by thylakoids to a high carbohydrate meal decreases feelings of hunger, elevates CCK levels and prevents postprandial hypoglycaemia in overweight women.

Appetite. 2013 Apr 27;
Stenblom EL, Montelius C, Ostbring K, Håkansson M, Nilsson S, Rehfeld JF, Erlanson-Albertsson C

Thylakoids are chlorophyll-containing membranes in chloroplasts that have been isolated from green leaves. It has been previously shown that thylakoids supplemented with a high-fat meal can affect cholecystokinin (CCK), ghrelin, insulin and blood lipids in humans, and can act to suppress food intake and prevent body weight gain in rodents. This study investigates the addition of thylakoids to a high carbohydrate meal and its effects upon hunger motivation and fullness, and the levels of glucose, insulin, CCK, ghrelin and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in overweight women. Twenty moderately overweight female subjects received test meals on three different occasions; two thylakoid enriched and one control, separated by one week. The test meals consisted of a high carbohydrate Swedish breakfast, with or without addition of thylakoids. Blood samples and VAS-questionnaires were evaluated over a four-hour period. Addition of thylakoids suppressed hunger motivation and increased secretion of CCK from 180 minutes, and prevented postprandial hypoglycaemia from 90 minutes following food intake. These effects indicate that thylakoids may intensify signals of satiety. This study therefore suggests that the dietary addition of thylakoids could aid efforts to reduce food intake and prevent compensational eating later in the day, which may help to reduce body weight over time. HubMed – eating


Is less always more? The effects of low-fat labeling and caloric information on food intake, calorie estimates, taste preference, and health attributions.

Appetite. 2013 Apr 27;
Ebneter DS, Latner JD, Nigg CR

The present study examined whether low-fat labeling and caloric information affect food intake, calorie estimates, taste preference, and health perceptions. Participants included 175 female undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions. A 2×2 between subjects factorial design was used in which the fat content label and caloric information of chocolate candy was manipulated. The differences in food intake across conditions did not reach statistical significance. However, participants significantly underestimated the calorie content of low-fat-labeled candy. Participants also rated low-fat-labeled candy as significantly better tasting when they had caloric information available. Participants endorsed more positive health attributions for low-fat-labeled candy than for regular-labeled candy, independent of caloric information. The inclusion of eating attitudes and behaviors as covariates did not alter the results. The study findings may be related to the “health halo” associated with low-fat foods and add to the research base by examining the interaction between low-fat and calorie labeling. HubMed – eating