Differences in Predictors of Traditional and Cyber-Bullying: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study in Korean School Children.

Differences in predictors of traditional and cyber-bullying: a 2-year longitudinal study in Korean school children.

Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2013 May; 22(5): 309-18
Yang SJ, Stewart R, Kim JM, Kim SW, Shin IS, Dewey ME, Maskey S, Yoon JS

Traditional bullying has received considerable research but the emerging phenomenon of cyber-bullying much less so. Our study aims to investigate environmental and psychological factors associated with traditional and cyber-bullying. In a school-based 2-year prospective survey, information was collected on 1,344 children aged 10 including bullying behavior/experience, depression, anxiety, coping strategies, self-esteem, and psychopathology. Parents reported demographic data, general health, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. These were investigated in relation to traditional and cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization at age 12. Male gender and depressive symptoms were associated with all types of bullying behavior and experience. Living with a single parent was associated with perpetration of traditional bullying while higher ADHD symptoms were associated with victimization from this. Lower academic achievement and lower self esteem were associated with cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization, and anxiety symptoms with cyber-bullying perpetration. After adjustment, previous bullying perpetration was associated with victimization from cyber-bullying but not other outcomes. Cyber-bullying has differences in predictors from traditional bullying and intervention programmes need to take these into consideration. HubMed – depression


Fluoxetine Reduces Murine Graft-Versus-Host Disease by Induction of T cell Immunosuppression.

J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2013 May 4;
Gobin V, Van Steendam K, Fevery S, Tilleman K, Billiau AD, Denys D, Deforce DL

Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) are widely used drugs in the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. Although SRIs are generally regarded as safe drugs with relatively few side effects, literature suggests that high concentrations of SRIs may alter immune function. We investigated whether high-dose treatment with fluoxetine was able to suppress acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) in a MHC-matched, minor histocompatibility antigen mismatched murine bone marrow transplantation model. We found that high doses fluoxetine induce a significant reduction of clinical symptoms and increase survival of these animals. The amelioration of clinical GvHD was accompanied by a reduced expansion of alloreactive T cells. We further analyzed the direct in vitro effect of six SRIs on the viability and proliferation of human T cells and found an anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effect that was significantly larger in activated than in resting T cells. We discuss these results in the light of potential future exploration of SRIs as a novel class of T cell immunosuppressive drugs. HubMed – depression


Managing depression in patients with advanced heart failure awaiting transplantation.

Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2013 May 15; 70(10): 867-73
Harris J, Heil JS

The relative merits of various forms of antidepressant therapy in patients with heart failure (HF) are discussed, including disease-specific pharmacokinetic changes and drug-interaction challenges in current or likely future candidates for heart transplantation.There is a growing emphasis on the use of antidepressants in patients with chronic HF, as depression can have a negative impact on HF progression and morbidity and mortality after heart transplants or other invasive cardiac surgery. Evidence from one small study of patients with concomitant end-stage HF and major depression indicated a reduced risk of cardiovascular death in those receiving ?-blockers in combination with selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) therapy. In addition to pharmacokinetic changes caused by HF itself, which can decrease medication absorption and distribution, other issues to consider in the drug selection process include the potential for antidepressants to interact with posttransplant immunosuppressive therapy and the possible effects of antidepressant use on surgical transfusion requirements. The SSRIs are generally recommended as first-line therapies for depressed patients with HF; however, fluvoxamine and fluoxetine should be avoided due to interactions with immunosuppressant agents. If SSRI therapy is not well tolerated or adjunctive therapy is required, bupropion, mirtazapine, venlafaxine, and duloxetine may be suitable alternatives for certain patients.Key considerations in antidepressant selection in the context of advanced HF include HF-related changes in drug pharmacokinetics that may affect initial dosing or dosage adjustment, possible drug interactions, adverse effects that may potentiate those induced by immunosuppressants added after transplantation, and tolerability issues. HubMed – depression


Autobiographical Memory, Self, and Stress-Related Psychiatric Disorders: Which Implications in Cancer Patients?

Neuropsychol Rev. 2013 May 3;
Giffard B, Viard A, Dayan J, Morel N, Joly F, Eustache F

Autobiographical memory refers to information and memories of personal life events, accumulated since childhood, which enable the construction of a feeling of identity and continuity. Autobiographical memory retrieval is a dynamic and reconstructive process, as mental representations change with the passage of time. This flexible aspect of memory is linked to one’s changing self and aspirations over time, that evolve according to our personal status and environment. Hence, any breakdown in the continuity of life involves a distortion of memory. Such distortions can be observed in stress-related psychiatric disorders, such as major depression or post-traumatic stress disorder, where autobiographical memory retrieval is characterized by overgenerality (i.e., the tendency to recall generic memories rather than specific events in response to cue words). Such memory disorders can be observed at different degrees in cancer patients. We will report studies focusing on the above-mentioned psychiatric disorders and cancer, and will attempt to establish a relation with autobiographical memory disturbances. The better understanding of such memory deficits could permit new pathophysiological hypotheses to emerge. Recommendations for future research that will enhance understanding of the factors that contribute to autobiographical memory in cancer are suggested. HubMed – depression