Dexmedetomidine: A Safe Alternative to General Anesthesia for Endovascular Stroke Treatment.

Dexmedetomidine: a safe alternative to general anesthesia for endovascular stroke treatment.

J Neurointerv Surg. 2013 Jun 12;
Whalin MK, Lopian S, Wyatt K, Sun CH, Nogueira RG, Glenn BA, Gershon RY, Gupta R

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There have been reports that general anesthesia (GA) is associated with worse clinical outcomes during intra-arterial treatment (IAT) for stroke. Since traditional sedatives carry the risk of respiratory depression, this retrospective study was designed to compare sedation with the ?2 adrenergic agonist dexmedetomidine (DEX) and with GA for IAT procedures. METHODS: We reviewed our institutional endovascular database of 216 consecutive patients who received DEX or GA for IAT of anterior circulation strokes between September 2010 and July 2012. The demographic, radiographic and angiographic variables between the GA and DEX groups were compared, as well as hemodynamic changes during the procedure. Binary logistic regression models were generated to determine the independent predictors of a favorable outcome (defined as a modified Rankin Score at 90 days of 0-2). RESULTS: 83 patients had IAT performed under DEX sedation. Their demographic characteristics were similar to those given GA except that they were older and had less severe strokes. The GA group experienced greater variations in blood pressure, more hypotension with induction (54% vs 28%, p<0.001) and greater use of vasopressors (79% vs 58%, p<0.001). In our regression models, independent predictors of a good outcome included age, NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, Alberta Stroke Program Early CT score (ASPECTS), successful reperfusion, lower baseline systolic blood pressure and higher blood pressures during the procedure. DEX was associated with a good outcome when models included NIHSS as the sole measure of stroke severity but was equivalent to GA when ASPECTS was added to the analysis. CONCLUSIONS: DEX can be safely administered in patients undergoing endovascular reperfusion therapies. Further study is required to determine if outcomes are different among sedatives used during such procedures. HubMed – depression


Validation and internal consistency of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 for major depression in Parkinson’s disease.

Age Ageing. 2013 Jun 11;
Chagas MH, Tumas V, Rodrigues GR, Machado-de-Sousa JP, Filho AS, Hallak JE, Crippa JA

BACKGROUND: depression is common in Parkinson’s disease (PD), although frequently under-recognised. Among the scales used to investigate depressive features in PD, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) has been largely used, but no specific cut-off scores for depression have been established thus far, which hinders the use of the PHQ-9 in clinical and research settings. OBJECTIVE: we assessed the discriminant validity of the PHQ-9 in order to establish the best cut-off score for the diagnosis of major depression in PD patients.Method: one hundred and ten patients with a diagnosis of PD without dementia were evaluated with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID), considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of major depression. Eighty-four PD patients completed the PHQ-9, the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) and the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS). RESULTS: the prevalence of current depression in the sample of PD patients was 25.5%. Maximal discrimination between depressed and non-depressed patients was reached with a cut-off score of 9 in the PHQ-9 (sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 83.1%). The internal consistency of the scale was 0.83 and, when used as a diagnostic instrument, the PHQ-9 had a sensitivity of 52.6% and specificity of 95.4%. The correlation coefficient between the PHQ-9 and the other two scales was 0.63. CONCLUSIONS: the PHQ-9 is an adequate instrument for the screening-but not diagnosis-of depression in PD patients, with optimal sensitivity and specificity attained with a cut-off score of 9. HubMed – depression


Functional neuroanatomy of the central noradrenergic system.

J Psychopharmacol. 2013 Jun 12;
Szabadi E

The central noradrenergic neurone, like the peripheral sympathetic neurone, is characterized by a diffusely arborizing terminal axonal network. The central neurones aggregate in distinct brainstem nuclei, of which the locus coeruleus (LC) is the most prominent. LC neurones project widely to most areas of the neuraxis, where they mediate dual effects: neuronal excitation by ?1-adrenoceptors and inhibition by ?2-adrenoceptors. The LC plays an important role in physiological regulatory networks. In the sleep/arousal network the LC promotes wakefulness, via excitatory projections to the cerebral cortex and other wakefulness-promoting nuclei, and inhibitory projections to sleep-promoting nuclei. The LC, together with other pontine noradrenergic nuclei, modulates autonomic functions by excitatory projections to preganglionic sympathetic, and inhibitory projections to preganglionic parasympathetic neurones. The LC also modulates the acute effects of light on physiological functions (‘photomodulation’): stimulation of arousal and sympathetic activity by light via the LC opposes the inhibitory effects of light mediated by the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus on arousal and by the paraventricular nucleus on sympathetic activity. Photostimulation of arousal by light via the LC may enable diurnal animals to function during daytime. LC neurones degenerate early and progressively in Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease, leading to cognitive impairment, depression and sleep disturbance. HubMed – depression



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