Deviant Smooth Pursuit in Preschool Children Prenatally Exposed to Methadone or Buprenorphine and Tobacco Affects Integrative Visuo-Motoric Capabilities.

Deviant Smooth Pursuit in Preschool Children Prenatally Exposed to Methadone or Buprenorphine and Tobacco affects Integrative Visuo-Motoric Capabilities.

Addiction. 2013 Jun 4;
Melinder A, Konijnenberg C, Sarfi M

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although an increasing number of children are born of mothers in opioid maintenance therapy (OMT), little is known about the long-term effects of these opioids. Previous studies suggest an association between prenatal OMT exposure and difficulties in eye movement control. Also, effects of tobacco smoking on eye movements have been reported. The present study examined the influence of eye movements, i.e., smooth pursuit, on visuo-motoric capabilities in children of smoking mothers in OMT. DESIGN: The study comprised a 2 (OMT vs. contrast group) x 2 (slow vs. fast smooth pursuit) between-subject factorial design. SETTING: The cognitive developmental research unit at the University of Oslo, Norway. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-six 4-year-old children of tobacco-smoking women in OMT and 23 non-exposed 4-year-old children, with non-smoking mothers, matched by gender and age participated. MEASUREMENT: Eye movements and smooth pursuit were recorded using a Tobii 1750 eyetracker. Visuo-motoric functions were examined by Bender test. FINDINGS: The OMT group tracked slowly moving objects with smooth pursuit in a similar manner to their non-exposed peers. When fast smooth pursuit was measured, the OMT group of children tracked the object more slowly than the contrast group, p = .02, ?p(2) = .11. A regression analysis showed that fast smooth pursuit predicted children’s performance on a visuo-motoric task, R2 = .37. CONCLUSION: Impaired eye-tracking skills in 4-year-old children exposed to methadone or buprenorphine and tobacco prenatally may inhibit the development of some cognitive functions later in life. HubMed – addiction


Comparison of Behavioral Treatment Conditions in Buprenorphine Maintenance.

Addiction. 2013 Jun 4;
Ling W, Hillhouse M, Ang A, Jenkins J, Fahey J

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The Controlled Substances Act requires physicians in the United States to provide or refer to behavioral treatment when treating opioid-dependent individuals with buprenorphine; however no research has examined the combination of buprenorphine with different types of behavioral treatments. This randomized controlled trial compared the effectiveness of 4 behavioral treatment conditions provided with buprenorphine and medical management (MM) for the treatment of opioid dependence. DESIGN: After a 2-week buprenorphine induction/stabilization phase, participants were randomized to 1 of 4 behavioral treatment conditions provided for 16 weeks: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT=53); Contingency Management (CM=49); both CBT and CM (CBT+CM=49); and no additional behavioral treatment (NT=51). SETTING: Study activities occurred at an outpatient clinical research center in Los Angeles, California, USA. PARTICIPANTS: Included were 202 male and female opioid-dependent participants. MEASUREMENTS: Primary outcome was opioid use, measured as a proportion of opioid-negative urine results over the number of tests possible. Secondary outcomes include retention, withdrawal symptoms, craving, other drug use, and adverse events. FINDINGS: No group differences in opioid use were found for the behavioral treatment phase (Chi-square=1.25, p=0.75), for a second medication-only treatment phase, or at weeks 40 and 52 follow-ups. Analyses revealed no differences across groups for any secondary outcome. CONCLUSION: There remains no clear evidence that cognitive behavioural therapy and contingency management reduce opiate use when added to buprenorphine and medical management in opiates users seeking treatment. HubMed – addiction


Bupropion, methylphenidate, and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone antagonize methamphetamine-induced efflux of dopamine according to their potencies as dopamine uptake inhibitors: implications for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence.

BMC Res Notes. 2013 Jun 5; 6(1): 220
Simmler LD, Wandeler R, Liechti ME

BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine-abuse is a worldwide health problem for which no effective therapy is available. Inhibition of methamphetamine-induced transporter-mediated dopamine (DA) release could be a useful approach to treat methamphetamine-addiction. We assessed the potencies of bupropion, methylphenidate, and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) to block DA uptake or to inhibit methamphetamine-induced DA release in HEK-293 cells expressing the human DA transporter. FINDINGS: Bupropion, methylphenidate, and MDPV inhibited methamphetamine-induced DA release with relative potencies corresponding to their potencies to block DA uptake (potency ranks: MDPV > methylphenidate > bupropion). CONCLUSIONS: Bupropion and methylphenidate antagonize the effects of methamphetamine in vitro and may be potential candidates for the treatment of stimulant addiction. However, drugs that very potently antagonize the effect of methamphetamine are likely to also exhibit considerable abuse liability (MDPV > methylphenidate > bupropion). HubMed – addiction