Developmental Fluoxetine Exposure Normalizes the Long-Term Effects of Maternal Stress on Post-Operative Pain in Sprague-Dawley Rat Offspring.

Developmental fluoxetine exposure normalizes the long-term effects of maternal stress on post-operative pain in sprague-dawley rat offspring.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(2): e57608
Knaepen L, Rayen I, Charlier TD, Fillet M, Houbart V, van Kleef M, Steinbusch HW, Patijn J, Tibboel D, Joosten EA, Pawluski JL

Early life events can significantly alter the development of the nociceptive circuit. In fact, clinical work has shown that maternal adversity, in the form of depression, and concomitant selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment influence nociception in infants. The combined effects of maternal adversity and SSRI exposure on offspring nociception may be due to their effects on the developing hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system. Therefore, the present study investigated long-term effects of maternal adversity and/or SSRI medication use on nociception of adult Sprague-Dawley rat offspring, taking into account involvement of the HPA system. Dams were subject to stress during gestation and were treated with fluoxetine (2×/5 mg/kg/day) prior to parturition and throughout lactation. Four groups of adult male offspring were used: 1. Control+Vehicle, 2. Control+Fluoxetine, 3. Prenatal Stress+Vehicle, 4. Prenatal Stress+Fluoxetine. Results show that post-operative pain, measured as hypersensitivity to mechanical stimuli after hind paw incision, was decreased in adult offspring subject to prenatal stress alone and increased in offspring developmentally exposed to fluoxetine alone. Moreover, post-operative pain was normalized in prenatally stressed offspring exposed to fluoxetine. This was paralleled by a decrease in corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) levels in prenatally stressed offspring and a normalization of serum CBG levels in prenatally stressed offspring developmentally exposed to fluoxetine. Thus, developmental fluoxetine exposure normalizes the long-term effects of maternal adversity on post-operative pain in offspring and these effects may be due, in part, to the involvement of the HPA system. HubMed – depression


Preliminary Study on the Effectiveness of Short Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (GCBT) on Indonesian Older Adults.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(2): e57198
Lubis DU, Jaya ES, Arjadi R, Hanum L, Astri K, Putri MD

This research aims to develop evidence based affordable psychological therapy for Indonesian older adults. An affordable psychological therapy is important as there is virtually no managed care or health insurance that covers psychological therapy in Indonesia. Multicomponent group cognitive behavior therapy (GCBGT) was chosen as a starting point due to its extensive evidence, short sessions, and success for a wide range of psychological problems. The group format was chosen to address both the economic and the cultural context of Indonesia. Then, the developed treatment is tested to common psychological problems in older adults’ population (anxiety, chronic pain, depression, and insomnia). The treatment consists of 8 sessions with twice a week meetings for 2.5 hours. There are similarities and differences among the techniques used in the treatment for the different psychological problems. The final participants are 38 older adults that are divided into the treatment groups; 8 participants joined the anxiety treatment, 10 participants for the chronic pain treatment, 10 participants for depression treatment, and lastly, 10 participants joined the insomnia treatment. The research design is pre-test post-test with within group analysis. We used principal outcome measure that is specific for each treatment group, as well as additional outcome measures. Overall, the result shows statistical significance change with large effect size for the principal outcome measure. In addition, the result for the additional measures varies from slight improvement with small effect size to statistically significant improvement with large effect size. The result indicates that short multicomponent GCBT is effective in alleviating various common psychological problems in Indonesian older adults. Therefore, multicomponent GCBT may be a good starting point to develop an effective and affordable psychological therapy for Indonesian older adults. Lastly, this result adds to the accumulating body of evidence on the effectiveness of multicomponent GCBT outside western context. HubMed – depression


Depression-Like Responses Induced by Daytime Light Deficiency in the Diurnal Grass Rat (Arvicanthis niloticus).

PLoS One. 2013; 8(2): e57115
Leach G, Adidharma W, Yan L

Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is one of the most common mood disorders with depressive symptoms recurring in winter when there is less sunlight. The fact that light is the most salient factor entraining circadian rhythms leads to the phase-shifting hypothesis, which suggests that the depressive episodes of SAD are caused by misalignments between the circadian rhythms and the habitual sleep times. However, how changes in environmental lighting conditions lead to the fluctuations in mood is largely unknown. The objective of this study is to develop an animal model for some of the features/symptoms of SAD using the diurnal grass rats Arvichantis niloticus and to explore the neural mechanisms underlying the light associated mood changes. Animals were housed in either a 12?12 hr bright light?dark (1000lux, BLD) or dim light?dark (50lux, DLD) condition. The depression-like behaviors were assessed by sweet-taste Saccharin solution preference (SSP) and forced swimming test (FST). Animals in the DLD group showed higher levels of depression-like behaviors compared to those in BLD. The anxiety-like behaviors were assessed in open field and light/dark box test, however no significant differences were observed between the two groups. The involvement of the circadian system on depression-like behaviors was investigated as well. Analysis of locomotor activity revealed no major differences in daily rhythms that could possibly contribute to the depression-like behaviors. To explore the neural substrates associated with the depression-like behaviors, the brain tissues from these animals were analyzed using immunocytochemistry. Attenuated indices of 5-HT signaling were observed in DLD compared to the BLD group. The results lay the groundwork for establishing a novel animal model and a novel experimental paradigm for SAD. The results also provide insights into the neural mechanisms underlying light-dependent mood changes. HubMed – depression



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