Deubiquitylating Enzymes and DNA Damage Response Pathways.

Deubiquitylating Enzymes and DNA Damage Response Pathways.

Cell Biochem Biophys. 2013 May 28;
Jacq X, Kemp M, Martin NM, Jackson SP

Covalent post-translational modification of proteins by ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like factors has emerged as a general mechanism to regulate myriad intra-cellular processes. The addition and removal of ubiquitin or ubiquitin-like proteins from factors has recently been demonstrated as a key mechanism to modulate DNA damage response (DDR) pathways. It is thus, timely to evaluate the potential for ubiquitin pathway enzymes as DDR drug targets for therapeutic intervention. The synthetic lethal approach provides exciting opportunities for the development of targeted therapies to treat cancer: most tumours have lost critical DDR pathways, and thus rely more heavily on the remaining pathways, while normal tissues are still equipped with all DDR pathways. Here, we review key deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs) involved in DDR pathways, and describe how targeting DUBs may lead to selective therapies to treat cancer patients. HubMed – drug


A clinical approach to pharmacogenetics.

Neth J Med. 2013 Apr; 71(3): 145-52
de Graaff LC, van Schaik RH, van Gelder T

Taking into account the high frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in the clinic and taking into account the growing knowledge of the genetic mechanisms underlying some of these ADRs, we believe that every clinician should know at least the basic principles of pharmacogenetics. However, our experience is that many clinicians are unaware of the potential contribution of pharmacogenetic testing and have not implemented this new modality in their daily practice. We present a case of Stevens-Johnson syndrome in a patient treated with carbamazepine. Following the pathways of clinical reasoning, we describe the possibilities of pharmacogenetic testing in the clinic (HLA-B*1502 and HLA-A*3101 in our patient). We describe the pharmacological and pharmacogenetic aspects relevant for the clinician’s daily practice (the existence of ADR subtypes, cytochrome P450, drug-drug interactions, genetic variations, CYP450 and HLA genotyping). Based on the Dutch top 100 of most prescribed drugs, we provide data on CYP450 and HLA genotypes relevant to those 100 most commonly used drugs. We discuss the availability and costs of pharmacogenetic testing, show a calculation of the ‘number needed to genotype’ and, based on these data, we propose a decision model for pharmacogenetic testing by clinicians. HubMed – drug


Application of a kosmotrope-based solubility assay to multiple protein therapeutic classes indicates broad use as a high-throughput screen for protein therapeutic aggregation propensity.

J Pharm Sci. 2013 May 27;
Yamniuk AP, Ditto N, Patel M, Dai J, Sejwal P, Stetsko P, Doyle ML

Aggregation propensity is a critical attribute of protein therapeutics that can influence production, manufacturing, delivery, and potential activity and safety (immunogenicity). It is therefore imperative to select molecules with low aggregation propensity in the early stages of drug discovery to mitigate the risk of delays or failure in clinical development. Although many biophysical methods have been developed to characterize protein aggregation, most established methods are low-throughput, requiring large quantities of protein, lengthy assay times, and/or significant upstream sample preparation, which can limit application in early candidate screening. To avoid these limitations, we developed a reliable method to characterize aggregation propensity, by measuring the relative solubility of protein therapeutic candidates in the presence of the kosmotropic salt ammonium sulfate. Manual bench-scale and automated plate-based methods were applied to different protein therapeutic formats including Adnectins, domain antibodies, PEGylated Adnectins, Fc fusion proteins, and monoclonal antibodies. The kosmotrope solubility data agreed well with the aggregation propensity observed by established methods, while being amenable to high-throughput screening because of speed, simplicity, versatility and low protein material requirements. The results suggest that kosmotrope-based solubility assessment has broad applicability to selecting protein therapeutic candidates with low aggregation propensity and high “developability” to progress into development. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci. HubMed – drug


Pharmacokinetics of a Three-Way Drug Interaction Between Danoprevir, Ritonavir and the Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide (OATP) Inhibitor Ciclosporin.

Clin Pharmacokinet. 2013 May 28;
Brennan BJ, Moreira SA, Morcos PN, Navarro MT, Asthappan J, Goelzer P, Weigl P, Smith PF

BACKGROUND: Danoprevir (RG7227) is a potent macrocyclic inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus NS3/4A protease, which is currently in development in combination with low-dose ritonavir for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C infection. Danoprevir is a substrate of cytochrome P450 3A4, and the organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP) 1B1 and 1B3. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a potent OATP inhibitor, ciclosporin, on danoprevir pharmacokinetics, when administered as danoprevir/ritonavir. The effect of danoprevir/ritonavir on ciclosporin pharmacokinetics was also investigated. METHODS: This was a single-dose, randomized, open-label, two-sequence, three-period, crossover study in healthy volunteers. In the first period, subjects were randomized to receive either a single oral dose of danoprevir 100 mg in combination with ritonavir 100 mg or a single oral dose of ciclosporin 100 mg. After a 14-day washout, patients were crossed over to receive the opposite treatment. In period 3, all subjects received the combination of danoprevir/ritonavir and ciclosporin following a 14-day washout from period 2. Blood samples were collected serially with each dose for pharmacokinetic assessment. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using non-compartmental analysis. Geometric mean ratios (GMRs) and 90 % confidence intervals (CIs) were used to compare pharmacokinetic parameters [maximum concentration (C max), area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC?), and concentration 12 h post-dose (C 12h)] of danoprevir/ritonavir and ciclosporin when administered alone or in combination. Measures of safety and tolerability were also evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 18 subjects were enrolled, and 17 completed the study. The C max, AUC?, and C 12h GMRs (90 % CI) when danoprevir/ritonavir and ciclosporin were co-administered versus danoprevir/ritonavir or ciclosporin alone were 7.22 (5.42-9.62), 13.6 (11.2-16.6), and 22.5 (17.4-29.3), respectively, for danoprevir, 1.97 (1.72-2.27), 2.23 (2.07-2.42), and 2.50 (2.22-2.81), respectively, for ritonavir, and 1.42 (1.29-1.57), 3.65 (3.27-4.08), and 6.15 (5.32-7.11), respectively, for ciclosporin. All treatments were well tolerated, with no laboratory abnormalities, and no clinically significant changes in vital signs, electrocardiograms, or physical examinations observed. CONCLUSIONS: A significant drug-drug interaction was observed between ciclosporin and danoprevir/ritonavir, leading to substantial increases in exposure to danoprevir and a lesser impact on exposure to ritonavir. Therefore, co-administration of danoprevir/ritonavir with potent OATP inhibitors should be undertaken with appropriate precautions. HubMed – drug