Determinants of HIV Sero-Conversion Among Male Injection Drug Users Enrolled in a Needle Exchange Programme at Karachi, Pakistan.

Determinants of HIV sero-conversion among male injection drug users enrolled in a needle exchange programme at Karachi, Pakistan.

J Pak Med Assoc. 2013 Jan; 63(1): 90-4
Samo RN, Altaf A, Memon A, Shah SA

To assess the determinants of HIV sero-conversion among male injection drug users enrolled in needle exchange programme at Karachi.An unmatched retrospective case control study was conducted among male injection drug users receiving needle exchange services in Karachi. The cases and controls were identified from one drop in center providing needle exchange services. The data for the study participants was collected retrospectively from the programme. Descriptive statistics, univariat analysis, and multivariate regression analysis for determinants of HIV sero-conversion and Hosmer and Lameshow goodness of fit test for model adequacy were performed.Mean age of the study participants was 34.17 +/- 10.74 years. Average monthly income of the participants was US$ 125.15 +/- 76.32. In unconditional multivariate regression analysis being unmarried (AOR: 3.0 95% CI 1.14-7.9, p=0.02), not living with family (AOR: 2.8 95% CI 1.18-6.79 p = 0.02), family history of addiction (AOR: 2.5, 95% CI 1.01-6.49, p = 0.04), injecting drugs in groups (AOR: 2.8, 95% CI 1.12 7.02 p=0.02), not obtaining syringes from the programme (AOR: 26.45, 95% CI 2.47-282.8 p = 0.007), and history of blood transfusion (AOR: 52.9, 95% CI 1.32-2118.416 p = 0.03) were significantly associated with HIV positive sero-status. Model adequacy was assessed by Hosmer and Lameshow goodness of (J: 4.95, p = 0.7) indicating that the model was accurate.Social and drug related risky behaviours are important determinants of HIV among male IDUs in Karachi. The situation calls for programmematic initiatives for addressing the risky behaviours among IDUs for effective control of epidemic in the country. HubMed – addiction

To what extent should waterpipe tobacco smoking become a public health priority?

Addiction. 2013 Jul 17;
Jawad M, McEwen A, McNeill A, Shahab L

Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) popularity is increasing world-wide, and health effects are emerging in the light of evidence that WTS is perceived by users as less harmful than cigarette smoking. However, there remains a paucity of available evidence from which to draw firm conclusions about its public health significance.This narrative review aims to summarize WTS literature to date to inform tobacco control specialists and health-care professionals about this phenomenon and help them to assess whether or not WTS should become a public health priority.Standard electronic databases as well as conference proceedings and personal libraries were searched in English, French and Arabic with inclusive terminology for the variety of names given to WTS.Waterpipe smoke contains significant levels of toxins, some of which are known to be carcinogenic to humans. Recent epidemiological trends have established an increasing prevalence of WTS in the Middle East and the United States, particularly among adolescents. It is used commonly across multiple ethnicities and both genders with less of a social gradient than cigarette smoking. Attitudes and beliefs have been researched widely and several reasons for believing it is less harmful than cigarette smoking include water filtration and social acceptability. A wide range of diseases have been associated with WTS, but research in this area is relatively underdeveloped and a better evidence base is needed. Worryingly, the waterpipe industry, including waterpipe cafes, operates in an almost completely unregulated market and employs deceptive marketing techniques to attract new users.Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) appears to be on the increase, especially among younger users, and therefore represents a potential public health concern. While legislators should consider enforcing and extending existing tobacco laws to a growing WTS industry, further research is required to fill gaps in the literature and provide evidence-based interventions for tobacco control specialists and health-care professionals. HubMed – addiction

The New Compound GET73, N-[(4-trifluoromethyl)benzyl]4-methoxybutyramide, Regulates Hippocampal Aminoacidergic Transmission Possibly via an Allosteric Modulation of mGlu5 Receptor. Behavioural Evidence of its “anti-alcohol” and Anxiolytic Properties.

Curr Med Chem. 2013 Jun 26;
Ferraro L, Loche A, Beggiato S, Tomasini MC, Antonelli T, Colombo G, Lobina C, Carai MA, Porcu A, Castelli MP, Clerici F, Borrelli AC, Cacciaglia R, Tanganelli S

The present article attempts to provide, on the basis of data emerging from studies carried out in our laboratories, a summary of the chemical and pharmacological properties of the new compound N-[(4-trifluoromethyl)benzyl]4-methoxybutyramide (GET73). Particular emphasis is given to findings obtained in vivo and in vitro suggesting that an allosteric modulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5 receptor) by GET73 may represent the mechanism underlying the effects of the compound produced on rat hippocampal glutamate and GABA transmission. Furthermore, behavioural findings demonstrating how this new compound reduces alcohol intake, displays anxiolytic properties, and influences spatial memory in rats are also summarized. Since mGlu5 receptors play an important role in regulating several central actions of drugs of abuse, and the hippocampus is a crucial brain area involved in addiction, anxiety, and spatial memory, a possible link between mGlu5 receptor allosteric modulation and the profiles of action of GET73 is proposed, although to date no studies have yet explored GET73 binding at the mGlu5 receptor orthosteric and/or allosteric sites. Following a brief overview of glutamatergic neurotransmission, mGlu receptor structures and activation mechanisms, the general properties of mGlu5 receptor and its allosteric modulators are described in the first part of the review. HubMed – addiction

The metabotropic glutamate 5 receptor modulates extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking in mice.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(7): e68371
Chesworth R, Brown RM, Kim JH, Lawrence AJ

Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly addictive psychostimulant with no therapeutics registered to assist addicts in discontinuing use. Glutamatergic dysfunction has been implicated in the development and maintenance of addiction. We sought to assess the involvement of the metabotropic glutamate 5 receptor (mGlu5) in behaviours relevant to METH addiction because this receptor has been implicated in the actions of other drugs of abuse, including alcohol, cocaine and opiates. mGlu5 knockout (KO) mice were tested in intravenous self-administration, conditioned place preference and locomotor sensitization. Self-administration of sucrose was used to assess the response of KO mice to a natural reward. Acquisition and maintenance of self-administration, as well as the motivation to self-administer METH was intact in mGlu5 KO mice. Importantly, mGlu5 KO mice required more extinction sessions to extinguish the operant response for METH, and exhibited an enhanced propensity to reinstate operant responding following exposure to drug-associated cues. This phenotype was not present when KO mice were tested in an equivalent paradigm assessing operant responding for sucrose. Development of conditioned place preference and locomotor sensitization were intact in KO mice; however, conditioned hyperactivity to the context previously paired with drug was elevated in KO mice. These data demonstrate a role for mGlu5 in the extinction and reinstatement of METH-seeking, and suggests a role for mGlu5 in regulating contextual salience. HubMed – addiction

Atlanta Drug Addiction Rehab Atlanta Man Recovers at South Carolina Drug Rehab Center
Subscribe the channel more Rehab Videos. Tag:rehabilitation ankle rehabilitation exercises hips rehabilitation exercis…