Detection of Tobacco-Related Biomarkers in Urine Samples by Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Coupled With Thin-Layer Chromatography.

Detection of tobacco-related biomarkers in urine samples by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy coupled with thin-layer chromatography.

Anal Bioanal Chem. 2013 Jun 27;
Huang R, Han S, Li XS

The nicotine metabolites, cotinine and trans-3′-hydroxycotinine (3HC) are considered as superior biomarkers for identifying tobacco exposure. More importantly, the ratio of 3HC to cotinine is a good indicator to phenotype individuals for cytochrome P450 2A6 activity and to individualize pharmacotherapy for tobacco addiction. In this paper, a simple, robust and novel method based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy coupled with thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was developed to directly quantify the biomarkers in human urine samples. This is the first time surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was used to detect cotinine and 3HC in urine samples. The linear dynamic range for the detection of cotinine is from 40 nM to 8 ?M while that of 3HC is from 1 ?M to 15 ?M. The detection limits are 10 nM and 0.2 ?M for cotinine and 3HC, respectively. The proposed method was further validated by quantifying the concentration of both cotinine and 3HC in smokers’ urine samples. This TLC-SERS method allows the direct detection of cotinine in the urine samples of both active and passive smokers and the detection of 3HC in smokers. HubMed – addiction


Differences in self-reported and behavioral measures of impulsivity in recreational and dependent cocaine users.

Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013 Jun 24;
Vonmoos M, Hulka LM, Preller KH, Jenni D, Schulz C, Baumgartner MR, Quednow BB

Dependent cocaine users consistently display increased trait impulsivity on self-report questionnaires and less consistently exhibit elevated motor impulsivity in some behavioral tasks. However, trait and behavioral impulsivity measures have rarely been investigated in recreational users. Therefore, we examined self-reported trait and motor impulsivities in recreational and dependent cocaine users to clarify the role of impulse control in cocaine addiction and non-dependent cocaine use.We investigated relatively pure recreational (n=68) and dependent (n=30) cocaine users, as well as psychostimulant-naïve controls (n=68), with self-report questionnaires (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11; Temperament and Character Inventory) and behavioral tasks (Rapid Visual Information Processing Task; Stop-Signal Task).Compared with controls, recreational and dependent cocaine users displayed higher trait impulsivity and novelty seeking scores on self-report questionnaires. Trait impulsivity scores were strongly associated with an increased number of symptoms of depression and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and correlated significantly with long-term cocaine intake parameters. By contrast, none of the behavioral motor impulsivity measures showed significant group effects or correlated with cocaine use parameters. The correlations among the self-report measures were high, but self-reports were scarcely correlated with behavioral task measures.These findings suggest that relatively pure cocaine users already display increased trait impulsivity at a recreational level of use. However, the results do not indicate any cocaine-related elevation of behavioral impulsivity in terms of motor or response inhibition. In summary, our data imply that elevated trait impulsivity is not a specific feature of dependent cocaine use. HubMed – addiction


The Behavioral- and Neuro-Economic Process of Temporal Discounting: A Candidate Behavioral Marker of Addiction.

Neuropharmacology. 2013 Jun 24;
Bickel WK, Koffarnus MN, Moody L, Wilson AG

Addiction science would benefit from the identification of a behavioral marker. A behavioral marker could reflect the projected clinical course of the disorder, function as a surrogate measure of clinical outcome, and/or may be related to biological components that underlie the disorder. In this paper we review relevant literature, made possible with the early and sustained support by NIDA, to determine whether temporal discounting, a neurobehavioral process derived from behavioral economics and further explored through neuroeconomics, may function as a behavioral marker. Our review suggests that temporal discounting 1) identifies individuals who are drug-dependent, 2) identifies those at risk of developing drug dependence, 3) acts as a gauge of addiction severity, 4) correlates with all stages of addiction development, 5) changes with effective treatment, and 6) may be related to the biological and genetic processes that underlie addiction. Thus, initial evidence supports temporal discounting as a candidate behavioral marker. Additional studies will be required in several areas for a more conclusive determination. Confirmation that temporal discounting functions as a behavioral marker for addiction could lead to 1) a screen for new treatments, 2) personalization of prevention and treatment interventions, and 3) the extension of temporal discounting as a behavioral marker for other etiologically similar disorders. HubMed – addiction


The effects of rearing environment and chronic methylphenidate administration on behavior and dopamine receptors in adolescent rats.

Brain Res. 2013 Jun 24;
Gill KE, Beveridge TJ, Smith HR, Porrino LJ

Rearing young rodents in socially isolated or environmentally enriched conditions has been shown to affect numerous components of the dopamine system as well as behavior. Methylphenidate (MPH), a commonly used dopaminergic agent, may affect animals differently based on rearing environment. Here we examined the interaction between environment and chronic MPH treatment at clinically relevant doses, administered via osmotic minipump. Young Sprague Dawley rats (PND 21) were assigned to environmentally enriched, pair-housed, or socially isolated rearing conditions, and treated with either 0, 2, 4, or 8mg/kg/day MPH for three weeks. At the end of the treatment period, animals were tested for locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior. The densities of D1-like and D2-like receptors were measured in the striatum using in vitro receptor autoradiography. Locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior were increased in isolated animals compared to pair-housed and enriched animals. The density of D1-like receptors was greater in isolated animals, but there were no differences between groups in D2-like receptor density. Finally, there were no effects of MPH administration on any reported measure. This study provides evidence for an effect of early rearing environment on the dopamine system and behavior, and also suggests that MPH administration may not have long-term consequences. HubMed – addiction



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