Depressive Symptoms and Cardiovascular Health by the American Heart Association’s Definition in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study.

Depressive Symptoms and Cardiovascular Health by the American Heart Association’s Definition in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

PLoS One. 2012; 7(12): e52771
Kronish IM, Carson AP, Davidson KW, Muntner P, Safford MM

Depressive symptoms are associated with increased incident and recurrent cardiovascular events. In 2010, the American Heart Association published the Life’s Simple 7, a metric for assessing cardiovascular health as measured by 4 health behaviors (smoking, physical activity, body mass index, diet) and 3 biological measures (cholesterol, blood pressure, glucose). The association between depressive symptoms and the Life’s Simple 7 has not yet been explored.Data from 20,093 participants ?45 years of age who enrolled in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study between 2003 and 2007 and who had complete data available on Life’s Simple 7 components were used for these analyses. The prevalence of ideal, intermediate, and poor health on each Life’s Simple 7 component and total Life’s Simple 7 scores were compared between participants with and without depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were measured using the 4-item Centers for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression scale.Participants with depressive symptoms were more likely to have poor levels on each of the Life’s Simple 7 components other than cholesterol [adjusted prevalence ratios (95% CI): smoking 1.41 (1.29-1.55); physical activity 1.38 (1.31-1.46); body mass index 1.09 (1.04-1.15); diet 1.08 (1.06-1.10); blood pressure 1.11 (1.02-1.21); glucose 1.24 (1.09-1.41)]. There was a graded association between increasing depressive symptoms and lower total Life’s Simple 7 score.Depressive symptoms are associated with worse cardiovascular health on the overall Life’s Simple 7 and on individual components representing both health behaviors and biological factors.
HubMed – depression

 

Food Insecurity and Children’s Mental Health: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

PLoS One. 2012; 7(12): e52615
Melchior M, Chastang JF, Falissard B, Galéra C, Tremblay RE, Côté SM, Boivin M

Food insecurity (which can be defined as inadequate access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food that meets individuals’ dietary needs) is concurrently associated with children’s psychological difficulties. However, the predictive role of food insecurity with regard to specific types of children’s mental health symptoms has not previously been studied. We used data from the Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Québec, LSCDQ, a representative birth cohort study of children born in the Québec region, in Canada, in 1997-1998 (n?=?2120). Family food insecurity was ascertained when children were 1½ and 4½ years old. Children’s mental health symptoms were assessed longitudinally using validated measures of behaviour at ages 4½, 5, 6 and 8 years. Symptom trajectory groups were estimated to identify children with persistently high levels of depression/anxiety (21.0%), aggression (26.2%), and hyperactivity/inattention (6.0%). The prevalence of food insecurity in the study was 5.9%. In sex-adjusted analyses, children from food-insecure families were disproportionately likely to experience persistent symptoms of depression/anxiety (OR: 1.79, 95% CI 1.15-2.79) and hyperactivity/inattention (OR: 3.06, 95% CI 1.68-5.55). After controlling for immigrant status, family structure, maternal age at child’s birth, family income, maternal and paternal education, prenatal tobacco exposure, maternal and paternal depression and negative parenting, only persistent hyperactivity/inattention remained associated with food insecurity (fully adjusted OR: 2.65, 95% CI 1.16-6.06). Family food insecurity predicts high levels of children’s mental health symptoms, particularly hyperactivity/inattention. Addressing food insecurity and associated problems in families could help reduce the burden of mental health problems in children and reduce social inequalities in development.
HubMed – depression

 

Reduced Visual Cortex Gray Matter Volume and Thickness in Young Adults Who Witnessed Domestic Violence during Childhood.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

PLoS One. 2012; 7(12): e52528
Tomoda A, Polcari A, Anderson CM, Teicher MH

Exposure to interparental violence is associated with negative outcomes, such as depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and reduced cognitive abilities. However, little is known about the potential effects of witnessing domestic violence during childhood on gray matter volume (GMV) or cortical thickness. High-resolution 3.0 T volumetric scans (Siemens Trio Scanner) were obtained on 52 subjects (18-25 years) including 22 (6 males/16 females) with a history of visually witnessing episodes of domestic violence, and 30 (8 males/22 females) unexposed control subjects, with neither a current nor past DSM-IV Axis I or II disorder. Potential confounding effects of age, gender, level of parental verbal aggression, parental education, financial stress, full scale IQ, and total GMV, or average thickness were modeled using voxel based morphometry and FreeSurfer. Witnessing domestic violence subjects had a 6.1% GMV reduction in the right lingual gyrus (BA18) (P?=?0.029, False Discovery Rate corrected peak level). Thickness in this region was also reduced, as was thickness in V2 bilaterally and left occipital pole. Theses regions were maximally sensitive to exposure to witnessing domestic violence between 11-13 years of age. Regional reductions in GMV and thickness were observed in both susceptible and resilient witnessing domestic violence subjects. Results in subjects witnessing domestic violence were similar to previously reported results in subjects with childhood sexual abuse, as the primary region affected was visual cortex. Brain regions that process and convey the adverse sensory input of the abuse may be specifically modified by this experience, particularly in subjects exposed to a single type of maltreatment. Exposure to multiple types of maltreatment is more commonly associated with morphological alterations in corticolimbic regions. These findings fit with preclinical studies showing that visual cortex is a highly plastic structure.
HubMed – depression

 


 

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