Depression Treatment: Universal Adolescent Depression Prevention Programs: A Review.

Universal Adolescent Depression Prevention Programs: A Review.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

J Sch Nurs. 2012 Dec 26;
Carnevale TD

Although the subject of adolescent depression has gained significant attention, little is being done in the way of primary prevention. The purpose of this article is to conduct a review of the literature through the lens of the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance framework. This review was conducted utilizing several online databases, as well as web and hand searches. Eleven studies were identified through a process of elimination and critically appraised by a two-tiered method. Results indicated cognitive-behavioral universal prevention interventions can be effective on decreasing depressive symptomalogy in adolescents. All reviewed studies were conducted in the school environment by professionals and/or school staff; however, only three of the programs implemented demonstrated adoption and sustainability. School nurses can be instrumental in bridging the gap between the planning and developing of prevention programs and translation into the real-world school environment.
HubMed – depression


Correlates of Prescription Opioid Initiation and Long-term Opioid Use in Veterans With Persistent Pain.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Clin J Pain. 2013 Feb; 29(2): 102-108
Dobscha SK, Morasco BJ, Duckart JP, Macey T, Deyo RA

OBJECTIVES:: Little is known about how opioid prescriptions for chronic pain are initiated. We sought to describe patterns of prescription opioid initiation, identify correlates of opioid initiation, and examine correlates of receipt of chronic opioid therapy (COT) among veterans with persistent noncancer pain. METHODS:: Using Veterans Affairs administrative data, we identified 5961 veterans from the Pacific Northwest with persistent elevated pain intensity scores who had not been prescribed opioids in the prior 12 months. We compared veterans not prescribed opioids over the subsequent 12 months with those prescribed any opioid and to those prescribed COT (>90 consecutive days). RESULTS:: During the study year, 35% of the sample received an opioid prescription and 5% received COT. Most first opioid prescriptions were written by primary care clinicians. Veterans prescribed COT were younger, had greater pain intensity, and high rates of psychiatric and substance use disorders compared with veterans in the other 2 groups. Among patients receiving COT, 29% were prescribed long-acting opioids, 37% received 1 or more urine drug screens, and 24% were prescribed benzodiazepines. Adjusting for age, sex, and baseline pain intensity, major depression [odds ratio 1.24 (1.10-1.39); 1.48 (1.14-1.93)], and nicotine dependence [1.34 (1.17-1.53); 2.02 (1.53-2.67)] were associated with receiving any opioid prescription and with COT, respectively. DISCUSSION:: Opioid initiations are common among veterans with persistent pain, but most veterans are not prescribed opioids long-term. Psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders are associated with receiving COT. Many Veterans receiving COT are concurrently prescribed benzodiazepines and many do not receive urine drug screening; additional study regarding practices that optimize safety of COT in this population is indicated.
HubMed – depression


Association between the COMT gene and rumination in a Hungarian sample.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Neuropsychopharmacol Hung. 2012 Dec; 14(4): 285-92
Pap D, Juhasz G, Bagdy G

Introduction: Rumination is a multidimensional trait which is a proven risk factor in the vulnerability to depression. The aim to identify the main risk genes for depression in addition to the gene-environment interactions pointed to the importance of intermediate phenotypes, like rumination, to improve our understanding of the biological mechanisms of depression. Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) gene is extensively investigated in depression with contradictory results but its association with rumination, as an intermediate phenotype in depression, has not been investigated yet. Methods: In our study, four tagging SNPs in the COMT gene (rs933271, rs740603, rs4680, rs4646316) were genotyped in a nonclinical Hungarian sample (n=939). We investigated the association between the COMT gene and rumination scores measured by the Ruminative Response Scale using haplotype trend regression. Results: We found a significant association between COMT haplotypes and rumination scores (p=0.013) but no significant association was apparent between the functional Val158Met polymorphism (rs4680) and rumination in any genetic model. Discussion: Variations in the COMT gene exert complex effects on susceptibility to depression involving intermediate phenotypes, such as rumination and also impulsivity, as we previously demonstrated. Both rumination and impulsivity represent maladaptive cognitive styles that can lead to depressive state by influencing the response to negative life events and life stressors. In conclusion, our findings provide evidence that in addition to other genes, COMT also has a significant role in the development of depression, and demonstrate that analysing the complex phenotype associations of genes by haplotype tagging is a powerful method.
HubMed – depression



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