Depression Treatment: The Effects of Mirtazapine on Sleep in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder.

The effects of mirtazapine on sleep in patients with major depressive disorder.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2012 Aug; 24(3): 215-24
Dolder CR, Nelson MH, Iler CA

Mirtazapine is a commonly used antidepressant with a well-known ability to produce sedation. At the same time, its sleep-promoting effects in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) are relatively unclear. The purpose of this article is to provide clinicians with a detailed review of mirtazapine’s sleep effects in patients with MDD.A literature search was conducted for studies involving mirtazapine in depressed patients that specifically assessed sleep.Twenty-three studies met selection criteria and were included in this review. Of the 15 studies that included a general assessment of sleep, all noted improvement from baseline with mirtazapine. Twelve of the 23 trials were randomized, blinded, and controlled. Mirtazapine was superior to placebo but did not clearly differentiate itself from other antidepressants, with the exception of venlafaxine. Eight studies used detailed measures of sleep and consistently reported that mirtazapine produced significant improvement in sleep efficiency, total sleep time, and sleep quality. Few investigations combined detailed assessments of sleep along with a comparator antidepressant.Mirtazapine is an antidepressant with sleep-promoting effects significantly greater than placebo, similar to tricyclic antidepressants, and somewhat similar to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. These effects must be balanced with mirtazapine’s ability to cause sedation-related side effects.
HubMed – depression


Developmental expression of orphan g protein-coupled receptor 50 in the mouse brain.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

ACS Chem Neurosci. 2012 Jun 20; 3(6): 459-72
Grünewald E, Tew KD, Porteous DJ, Thomson PA

Mental disorders have a complex etiology resulting from interactions between multiple genetic risk factors and stressful life events. Orphan G protein-coupled receptor 50 (GPR50) has been identified as a genetic risk factor for bipolar disorder and major depression in women, and there is additional genetic and functional evidence linking GPR50 to neurite outgrowth, lipid metabolism, and adaptive thermogenesis and torpor. However, in the absence of a ligand, a specific function has not been identified. Adult GPR50 expression has previously been reported in brain regions controlling the HPA axis, but its developmental expression is unknown. In this study, we performed extensive expression analysis of GPR50 and three protein interactors using rt-PCR and immunohistochemistry in the developing and adult mouse brain. Gpr50 is expressed at embryonic day 13 (E13), peaks at E18, and is predominantly expressed by neurons. Additionally we identified novel regions of Gpr50 expression, including brain stem nuclei involved in neurotransmitter signaling: the locus coeruleus, substantia nigra, and raphe nuclei, as well as nuclei involved in metabolic homeostasis. Gpr50 colocalizes with yeast-two-hybrid interactors Nogo-A, Abca2, and Cdh8 in the hypothalamus, amygdala, cortex, and selected brain stem nuclei at E18 and in the adult. With this study, we identify a link between GPR50 and neurotransmitter signaling and strengthen a likely role in stress response and energy homeostasis.
HubMed – depression


O-hydroxyacetamide carbamates as a highly potent and selective class of endocannabinoid hydrolase inhibitors.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

ACS Chem Neurosci. 2012 May 16; 3(5): 418-26
Niphakis MJ, Johnson DS, Ballard TE, Stiff C, Cravatt BF

The two major endocannabinoid transmitters, anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), are degraded by distinct enzymes in the nervous system, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), respectively. FAAH and MAGL inhibitors cause elevations in brain AEA and 2-AG levels, respectively, and reduce pain, anxiety, and depression in rodents without causing the full spectrum of psychotropic behavioral effects observed with direct cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1) agonists. These findings have inspired the development of several classes of endocannabinoid hydrolase inhibitors, most of which have been optimized to show specificity for either FAAH or MAGL or, in certain cases, equipotent activity for both enzymes. Here, we investigate an unusual class of O-hydroxyacetamide carbamate inhibitors and find that individual compounds from this class can serve as selective FAAH or dual FAAH/MAGL inhibitors in vivo across a dose range (0.125-12.5 mg kg(-1)) suitable for behavioral studies. Competitive and click chemistry activity-based protein profiling confirmed that the O-hydroxyacetamide carbamate SA-57 is remarkably selective for FAAH and MAGL in vivo, targeting only one other enzyme in brain, the additional 2-AG hydrolase ABHD6. These data designate O-hydroxyacetamide carbamates as a versatile chemotype for creating endocannabinoid hydrolase inhibitors that display excellent in vivo activity and tunable selectivity for FAAH-anandamide versus MAGL (and ABHD6)-2-AG pathways.
HubMed – depression


Depression In Pregnancy Tied to Early Delivery

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Silver said he's not aware of research suggesting that depression treatment—whether it's medication or talk therapy—improves the timing of delivery. “That's to be determined,” Silver said. It's a difficult topic to study, he noted, since researchers …


Depression during pregnancy tied to preemie births

Filed under: Depression Treatment

The findings do not prove cause-and-effect, nor that treating depression will prevent preterm births. Silver said he's not aware of research suggesting that depression treatment — whether it's medication or talk therapy — improves women's pregnancy …
Read more on Reuters


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