Depression Treatment: The Association Between Aids Related Stigma and Major Depressive Disorder Among HIV-Positive Individuals in Uganda.

The Association between Aids Related Stigma and Major Depressive Disorder among HIV-Positive Individuals in Uganda.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

PLoS One. 2012; 7(11): e48671
Akena D, Musisi S, Joska J, Stein DJ

Major depressive disorder in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is common and may be associated with a number of factors, including AIDS-related stigma, decreased CD4 levels, increased opportunistic infections and sociodemographic variables. The extent to which AIDS-related stigma is associated with major depressive disorder among PLWHA has not been well studied in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between major depressive disorder, AIDS-related stigma, immune status, and sociodemographic variables with the aim of making recommendations that can guide clinicians.We assessed 368 PLWHA for major depressive disorder, as well as for potentially associated factors, including AIDS-related stigma, CD4 levels, presence of opportunistic infections, and sociodemographic variables.The prevalence of major depressive disorder was 17.4%, while 7.9% of the participants had AIDS related stigma. At multivariable analysis, major depressive disorder was significantly associated with AIDS-related stigma [OR?=?1.65, CI (1.20-2.26)], a CD4 count of ?200 [OR 0.52 CI (0.27-0.99)], and being of younger age [0.95, CI (0.92-0.98).Due to the high burden of major depressive disorder, and its association with AIDS related stigma, routine screening of PLWHA for both conditions is recommended. However, more research is required to understand this association.
HubMed – depression


The reach of depression screening preceding treatment: are there patterns of patients’ self-selection?

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Int J Endocrinol. 2012; 2012: 148145
Ajdukovi? D, Pibernik-Okanovi? M, Sekerija M, Hermanns N

This study evaluated the reach of depression screening followed by treatment programs for subsyndromal depression and explored demographic and clinical characteristics of patients who were reached versus those who were not. A two-item Patient Health Questionnaire-Depression was sent to 4196 type 2 diabetic patients. Positively screened patients were interviewed to assess the severity of depression, and those with subclinical symptoms were invited to treatment groups. The reach of screening procedure was evaluated by the total response rate, proportion of positive depression screenings, and proportion of eligible patients entering treatment programs. Predictors of responsiveness to screening and of participation in treatment were determined using logistic regression. Of the 34% of patients who returned the questionnaire (n = 1442), 40% reported depressive symptoms and a need for professional help (n = 581). Age (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.05-1.08), BMI (OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 1.00-1.04), HbA1C (OR = .92, 95% CI = .86-.99), and LDL-cholesterol (OR = .90, 95% CI = .81-1.00) correlated with response to screening. Willingness to accept treatment was predicted by professional status (OR = 3.24, 95% CI = 1.53-6.87), education (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.05-1.38), and BMI (OR = .91, 95% CI = .85-.98). Older patients with better diabetes control were more likely to be reached by postal screening for depressive symptoms. Professionally inactive, better-educated persons and those with lower BMI were more likely to participate in the intervention for subsyndromal depression.
HubMed – depression


Help-seeking behavior among Japanese school students who self-harm: results from a self-report survey of 18,104 adolescents.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2012; 8: 561-9
Watanabe N, Nishida A, Shimodera S, Inoue K, Oshima N, Sasaki T, Inoue S, Akechi T, Furukawa TA, Okazaki Y

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with poor help-seeking among adolescents who self-harm and to explore the resources used for help.A cross-sectional survey using an anonymous questionnaire was conducted in 47 junior and 30 senior high schools in Japan. Adolescent self-harm was defined as an adolescent who had harmed himself or herself in the previous year, as in previous studies reported in Western countries. Poor help-seeking was defined as not consulting anyone despite reporting current psychological or somatic complaints. Information about sociodemographic and psychological factors possibly associated with help-seeking, such as suicidal thoughts, depression, anxiety, and psychotic-like experiences, was also collected. Regression analyses were performed to examine associated factors.A total of 18,104 students (8620 aged 12-15 years, 9484 aged 15-18 years), accounting for 93% of all students in the relevant student classes, participated in the study. Two hundred and seventy-six (3.3%) junior and 396 (4.3%) senior high school students reported having self-harmed. Of these, 40.6% of adolescents in junior and 37.6% in senior high schools were classified as poor help-seeking. Poor help-seeking with regard to self-harm was significantly more common in those who reported not having consulted anyone about psychological problems (odds ratio 9.2, 95% confidence interval 4.6-18.4 in juniors; odds ratio 9.9, confidence interval 5.5-17.9 in seniors) and in those with current suicidal ideation (odds ratio 2.0, confidence interval 1.0-3.7 in juniors; odds ratio 1.9, confidence interval 1.1-3.4 in seniors). Family members were approached significantly less often as a resource for help by students who self-harmed than by those who did not, and school nurses were more often consulted by those who did self-harm.Around 40% of adolescents who self-harmed in the previous year did not seek help. School-based mental health should screen students at risk of self-harm, and educate school nurses about preventative care.
HubMed – depression



Helen Mayberg: Deep Brain Stimulation for Depression – A Stockhom Psychiatry Lecture by Prof. Helen S Mayberg, Emory University titled “Tuning Depression Circuits using Deep Brain Stimulation” held April 19 2012 at Karolinska Institutet. Unfortunately, sound and video quality is not optimal for the first 2 minutes but the rest in in HD. More lectures at . Join us on


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