Depression Treatment: Synaptic Dynamics: Linear Model and Adaptation Algorithm.

Synaptic dynamics: Linear model and adaptation algorithm.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012 Aug; 2012: 1362-5
Yousefi A, Dibazar AA, Berger TW

Linear model for synapse temporal dynamics and learning algorithm for synaptic adaptation in spiking neural networks are presented. The proposed linear model substantially simplifies analysis and training of spiking neural networks, meanwhile accurately models facilitation and depression dynamics in synapse. The learning rule is biologically plausible and is capable of simultaneously adjusting both of LTP and STP parameters of individual synapses in a network. To prove efficiency of the system, a small size spiking neural network is trained for generating different spike and bursting patterns of cortical neurons. The simulation results revealed that the linear model of synaptic dynamics along with the proposed STDP based learning algorithm can provide a practical tool for simulating and training very large scale spiking neural circuitry comprising of significant number of synapses and neurons.
HubMed – depression


Calcium, calpain, and calcineurin in low-frequency depression of transmitter release.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

J Neurosci. 2013 Jan 30; 33(5): 1975-90
Silverman-Gavrila LB, Praver M, Mykles DL, Charlton MP

Low-frequency depression (LFD) of transmitter release occurs at phasic synapses with stimulation at 0.2 Hz in both isolated crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) neuromuscular junction (NMJ) preparations and in intact animals. LFD is regulated by presynaptic activity of the Ca(2+)-dependent phosphatase calcineurin (Silverman-Gavrila and Charlton, 2009). Since the fast Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM inhibits LFD but the slow chelator EGTA-AM does not, the Ca(2+) sensor for LFD may be close to a Ca(2+) source at active zones. Calcineurin can be activated by the Ca(2+)-activated protease calpain, and immunostaining showed that both proteins are present at nerve terminals. Three calpain inhibitors, calpain inhibitor I, MDL-28170, and PD150606, but not the control compound PD145305, inhibit LFD both in the intact animal as shown by electromyograms and by intracellular recordings at neuromuscular junctions. Analysis of mini-EPSPs indicated that these inhibitors had minimal postsynaptic effects. Proteolytic activity in CNS extract, detected by a fluorescent calpain substrate, was modulated by Ca(2+) and calpain inhibitors. Western blot analysis of CNS extract showed that proteolysis of calcineurin to a fragment consistent with the constitutively active form required Ca(2+) and was blocked by calpain inhibitors. Inhibition of LFD by calpain inhibition blocks the reduction in phosphoactin and the depolymerization of tubulin that normally occurs in LFD, probably by blocking the dephosphorylation of cytoskeletal proteins by calcineurin. In contrast, high-frequency depression does not involve protein phosphorylation- or calpain-dependent mechanisms. LFD may involve a specific pathway in which local Ca(2+) signaling activates presynaptic calpain and calcineurin at active zones and causes changes of tubulin cytoskeleton.
HubMed – depression


Randomized controlled trial of trigeminal nerve stimulation for drug-resistant epilepsy.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Neurology. 2013 Jan 30;
Degiorgio CM, Soss J, Cook IA, Markovic D, Gornbein J, Murray D, Oviedo S, Gordon S, Corralle-Leyva G, Kealey CP, Heck CN

OBJECTIVE: To explore the safety and efficacy of external trigeminal nerve stimulation (eTNS) in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) using a double-blind randomized controlled trial design, and to test the suitability of treatment and control parameters in preparation for a phase III multicenter clinical trial. METHODS: This is a double-blind randomized active-control trial in DRE. Fifty subjects with 2 or more partial onset seizures per month (complex partial or tonic-clonic) entered a 6-week baseline period, and then were evaluated at 6, 12, and 18 weeks during the acute treatment period. Subjects were randomized to treatment (eTNS 120 Hz) or control (eTNS 2 Hz) parameters. RESULTS: At entry, subjects were highly drug-resistant, averaging 8.7 seizures per month (treatment group) and 4.8 seizures per month (active controls). On average, subjects failed 3.35 antiepileptic drugs prior to enrollment, with an average duration of epilepsy of 21.5 years (treatment group) and 23.7 years (active control group), respectively. eTNS was well-tolerated. Side effects included anxiety (4%), headache (4%), and skin irritation (14%). The responder rate, defined as >50% reduction in seizure frequency, was 30.2% for the treatment group vs 21.1% for the active control group for the 18-week treatment period (not significant, p = 0.31, generalized estimating equation [GEE] model). The treatment group experienced a significant within-group improvement in responder rate over the 18-week treatment period (from 17.8% at 6 weeks to 40.5% at 18 weeks, p = 0.01, GEE). Subjects in the treatment group were more likely to respond than patients randomized to control (odds ratio 1.73, confidence interval 0.59-0.51). eTNS was associated with reductions in seizure frequency as measured by the response ratio (p = 0.04, analysis of variance [ANOVA]), and improvements in mood on the Beck Depression Inventory (p = 0.02, ANOVA). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides preliminary evidence that eTNS is safe and may be effective in subjects with DRE. Side effects were primarily limited to anxiety, headache, and skin irritation. These results will serve as a basis to inform and power a larger multicenter phase III clinical trial. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This phase II study provides Class II evidence that trigeminal nerve stimulation may be safe and effective in reducing seizures in people with DRE.
HubMed – depression


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