Depression Treatment: Sustained Inflammation 1.5 Years Post-Stroke Is Not Associated With Depression in Elderly Stroke Survivors.

Sustained inflammation 1.5 years post-stroke is not associated with depression in elderly stroke survivors.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Clin Interv Aging. 2013; 8: 69-74
Noonan K, Crewther SG, Carey LM, Pascoe MC, Linden T

Depression is common in elderly stroke survivors and has been associated with systemic inflammation. We aimed to investigate an elderly population of Swedish stroke patients for evidence of sustained peripheral inflammation 18 months post-stroke and to identify if inflammation is associated with post-stroke depression at 18 months post-stroke.The Barthel Index was used to measure the level of impairment in activities of daily living at 3 days post-stroke. Serum concentrations of inflammation markers, ie, C-reactive protein and white cell count, were measured in 149 stroke patients (mean age 81 ± 5.33 years, 35% male) at 18 months post-stroke, and a comparison was made with an age-matched sample of elderly Swedish individuals who had not suffered a stroke. At the same visit, clinical depression was diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition-Revised criteria. Severity of depression was assessed using the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS).Mean C-reactive protein and white cell count levels in stroke patients were significantly elevated at 18 months post-stroke compared with population probands. Disability scores were associated with MADRS depression scores, but C-reactive protein and white cell count were not.We found evidence for a sustained peripheral inflammatory response at 18 months post-stroke. C-reactive protein and white cell count were not associated with depression in this study.
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Suboptimal treatment adherence in bipolar disorder: impact on clinical outcomes and functioning.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Patient Prefer Adherence. 2013; 7: 89-94
Montes JM, Maurino J, de Dios C, Medina E

The primary aim of this study was to assess drug treatment adherence in patients with bipolar disorder and to identify factors associated with adherence. The secondary aim was to analyze the impact of suboptimal adherence on clinical and functional outcomes.A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of outpatients receiving an oral antipsychotic drug. Medication adherence was assessed combining the 10-item Drug Attitude Inventory, the Morisky Green Adherence Questionnaire, and the Compliance Rating Scale. Logistic regression was used to determine significant variables associated with suboptimal adherence to medication.Three hundred and three patients were enrolled into the study. The mean age was 45.9 ± 12.8 years, and 59.7% were females. Sixty-nine percent of patients showed suboptimal adherence. Disease severity and functioning were significantly worse in the suboptimal group than in the adherent group. Multivariate analysis showed depressive polarity of the last acute episode, presence of subsyndromal symptoms, and substance abuse/dependence to be significantly associated with suboptimal treatment adherence (odds ratios 3.41, 2.13, and 1.95, respectively).A high prevalence of nonadherence was found in an outpatient sample with bipolar disorder. Identification of factors related to treatment adherence would give clinicians the opportunity to select more adequately patients who are eligible for potential adherence-focused interventions.
HubMed – depression


Relevance of mitochondrial genetics and metabolism in cancer development.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2013; 5(2):
Gasparre G, Porcelli AM, Lenaz G, Romeo G

Cancer cells are characterized in general by a decrease of mitochondrial respiration and oxidative phosphorylation, together with a strong enhancement of glycolysis, the so-called Warburg effect. The decrease of mitochondrial activity in cancer cells may have multiple reasons, related either to the input of reducing equivalents to the electron transfer chain or to direct alterations of the mitochondrial respiratory complexes. In some cases, the depression of respiratory activity is clearly the consequence of disruptive mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations and leads as a consequence to enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). By acting both as mutagens and cellular mitogens, ROS may contribute directly to cancer progression. On the basis of our experimental evidence, we suggest a deep implication of the supercomplex organization of the respiratory chain as a missing link between oxidative stress, energy failure, and tumorigenesis. We speculate that under conditions of oxidative stress, a dissociation of mitochondrial supercomplexes occurs, with destabilization of complex I and secondary enhanced generation of ROS, thus leading to a vicious circle amplifying mitochondrial dysfunction. An excellent model to dissect the role of pathogenic, disassembling mtDNA mutations in tumor progression and their contribution to the metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells (glycolysis vs. respiration) is provided by an often underdiagnosed subset of tumors, namely, the oncocytomas, characterized by disruptive mutations of mtDNA, especially of complex I subunits. Such mutations almost completely abolish complex I activity, which slows down the Krebs cycle, favoring a high ratio of ?-ketoglutarate/succinate and consequent destabilization of hypoxia inducible factor 1? (HIF1?). On the other hand, if complex I is partially defective, the levels of NAD(+) may be sufficient to implement the Krebs cycle with higher levels of intermediates that stabilize HIF1?, thus favoring tumor malignancy. The threshold model we propose, based on the population-like dynamics of mitochondrial genetics (heteroplasmy vs. homoplasmy), implies that below threshold complex I is present and functioning correctly, thus favoring tumor growth, whereas above threshold, when complex I is not assembled, tumor growth is arrested. We have therefore termed “oncojanus” the mtDNA genes whose disruptive mutations have such a double-edged effect.
HubMed – depression


Treatment Of Depression In Managed Care (Mental Health Practice Under...

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Active Treatment of Depression (Norton Professional Books)-ExLibrary
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