Depression Treatment: Racial Disparities in Depression and Life Satisfaction After Spinal Cord Injury: A Mediational Model.

Racial Disparities in Depression and Life Satisfaction After Spinal Cord Injury: A Mediational Model.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil. 2012; 18(3): 232-240
Brown SA, Saunders LL, Krause JS

PURPOSE: To identify the relationship of race and gender with 3 aspects of life satisfaction and depressive symptoms after spinal cord injury (SCI), evaluating the extent to which socioeconomic factors mediate any observed relationships. METHODS: Adults with traumatic SCI of at least 1-year duration (N = 1,549) were identified through a Southeastern United States SCI Model System of care, and cross-sectional survey data were collected at a Southeastern United States medical university. Three aspects of life satisfaction (home life satisfaction, vocational satisfaction, global satisfaction) were measured using 20 satisfaction items from the Life Situation Questionnaire-Revised. The Older Adult Health and Mood Questionnaire measured depressive symptoms. MANCOVA assessed mediation of socioeconomic status between race and life satisfaction and depression. RESULTS: Home life satisfaction and vocational satisfaction were significantly related to race, with White participants scoring higher than Black participants during the first stage of the regression. However, socioeconomic factors mediated the relationships such that race was no longer significant after considering economic factors. Race was significantly associated with global satisfaction after adjusting for socioeconomic factors. Depression was not significantly related to race. Gender was unrelated to all study outcomes. Of the socioeconomic mediators, family income was a significant predictor of each outcome, whereas education was only predictive of vocational satisfaction. CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic factors are important mediators of the relationship between race and certain aspects of life satisfaction among persons with SCI. Family income and, to a lesser extent, education should be considered when evaluating race differences in life satisfaction after SCI.
HubMed – depression


Relations between Loss of Services and Psychiatric Symptoms in Urban and Non-Urban Settings following a Natural Disaster.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

J Psychopathol Behav Assess. 2012 Sep; 34(3): 343-350
Gros DF, Price M, Gros KS, Paul LA, McCauley JL, Ruggiero KJ

Disasters have been associated with both acute and prolonged distress and significant post-disaster psychiatric symptoms. These outcomes may be further complicated by extended periods without vital services and supplies, such as electricity and drinking water. The present study investigated the relations between post-disaster loss of services and psychiatric symptoms in urban/non-urban disaster victims. Random-digit-dial methodology was used to interview 1,249 victims of Hurricane Ike, a strong storm that hit Galveston, TX in 2008. Findings demonstrated significant relations between loss of services and post-disaster symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and worry. These relations varied by urban/non-urban settings; there were significant positive relations between loss of services and symptoms of depression in non-urban settings, but not in urban settings. Similarly, a stronger relation between loss of services and symptoms of PTSD also was demonstrated in non-urban compared to urban settings. Findings highlight the potential importance of pre-disaster preparation, post-disaster restoration of services, and post-disaster community support in post-disaster psychiatric outcomes, with a particular emphasis in non-urban settings.
HubMed – depression


Executive functioning moderates the relationship between motivation and adolescent depressive symptoms.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Pers Individ Dif. 2013 Jan; 54(1): 18-22
Vergara-Lopez C, Lopez-Vergara HI, Colder CR

We investigated the association between adolescent depressive symptoms and components of executive functioning (EF), including planning (Tower of London), set-shifting (Wisconsin Card Sorting Task), and inhibition (Stop Signal Task) in a community sample of 12-14 year olds. Further, EF was tested as a moderator of motivation (as operationalized by revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory) effects on depressive symptoms. Results suggested that planning ability was associated with depressive symptoms. Furthermore, planning ability moderated the relationship between motivation (fight-flight- freeze system; FFFS) and depressive symptoms, such that among adolescents with poor planning ability the FFFS positively predicted depressive symptoms, but among adolescents with strong planning ability the FFFS negatively predicts depressive symptoms. Neither set-shifting nor inhibition was associated with depressive symptoms. Findings highlight the need to consider multiple components of EF and to integrate motivational and executive dysfunction models to the study of depression.
HubMed – depression


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