Depression Treatment: Perceived Injustice Moderates the Relationship Between Pain and Depressive Symptoms Among Individuals With Persistent Musculoskeletal Pain.

Perceived injustice moderates the relationship between pain and depressive symptoms among individuals with persistent musculoskeletal pain.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Pain Res Manag. 2012 Sep; 17(5): 335-340
Scott W, Sullivan MJ

BACKGROUND: Numerous investigations report that depressive symptoms frequently coexist with persistent pain. However, evidence suggests that symptoms of depression are not an inevitable consequence of pain. Diathesis-stress formulations suggest that psychological factors interact with the stress of pain to heighten the risk of depressive symptoms. Perceptions of injustice have recently emerged as a factor that may interact with the stress of pain to increase depressive symptoms. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to examine whether perceived injustice moderates the relationship between pain and depressive symptoms. METHODS: A total of 107 individuals with persistent musculoskeletal pain completed self-report measures of pain severity, depressive symptoms, perceived injustice and catastrophizing. RESULTS: A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that the interaction between pain severity and perceived injustice uniquely contributed an additional 6% of the variance to the prediction of depressive symptoms, beyond the main effects of these variables. Post hoc probing indicated that pain was significantly related to depressive symptoms at high, but not low levels of perceived injustice. This finding remained statistically significant even when controlling for pain catastrophizing. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that perceived injustice augments the relationship between pain severity and depressive symptoms. The inclusion of techniques specifically targeting perceptions of injustice may enhance the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing symptoms of depression for individuals presenting with strong perceptions of injustice.
HubMed – depression


Myofascial pain in patients waitlisted for total knee arthroplasty.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Pain Res Manag. 2012 Sep; 17(5): 321-327
Henry R, Cahill CM, Wood G, Hroch J, Wilson R, Cupido T, Vandenkerkhof E

BACKGROUND: Knee pain is one of the major sources of pain and disability in developed countries, particularly in aging populations, and is the primary indication for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). OBJECTIVES: To determine the presence of myofascial pain in OA patients waitlisted for TKA and to determine whether their knee pain may be alleviated by trigger point injections. METHODS: Following ethics approval, 25 participants were recruited from the wait list for elective unilateral primary TKA at the study centre. After providing informed consent, all participants were examined for the presence of active trigger points in the muscles surrounding the knee and received trigger point injections of bupivacaine. Assessments and trigger point injections were implemented on the first visit and at subsequent visits on weeks 1, 2, 4 and 8. Outcome measures included the Timed Up and Go test, Brief Pain Inventory, Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire. RESULTS: Myofascial trigger points were identified in all participants. Trigger point injections significantly reduced pain intensity and pain interference, and improved mobility. All participants had trigger points identified in medial muscles, most commonly in the head of the gastrocnemius muscle. An acute reduction in pain and improved functionality was observed immediately following intervention, and persisted over the eight-week course of the investigation. CONCLUSION: All patients had trigger points in the vastus and gastrocnemius muscles, and 92% of patients experienced significant pain relief with trigger point injections at the first visit, indicating that a significant proportion of the OA knee pain was myofascial in origin. Further investigation is warranted to determine the prevalence of myofascial pain and whether treatment delays or prevents TKA.
HubMed – depression


The Impact of Depressive Symptoms on Neuropsychological Performance Tests in HIV-Infected Individuals: A Study of the Hawaii Aging with HIV Cohort.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

World J AIDS. 2011 Dec 1; 1(4): 139-145
Shimizu SM, Chow DC, Valcour V, Masaki K, Nakamoto B, Kallianpur KJ, Shikuma C

BACKGROUND: The frequency of neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals remains high despite the availability of potent antiretroviral therapy (ART). The concurrence of depression among HIV-infected patients with NCI is common, especially among older individuals. Depression has been implicated as a risk factor for impaired neuropsychological performance (NP). This study explored the relationship between depressive symptoms and NP testing in HIV-infected individuals. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was performed within the Hawaii Aging with HIV Cohort, a large prospective study of cognition of older (50 or more years old) compared to younger (20 to 39 years old) HIV-infected individuals. RESULTS: Two hundred and eighty-five HIV infected participants (157 older and 128 younger) were administered a battery of NP tests to measure performance in major cognitive domains. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The rates of depressive symptoms and neuropsychological impairment were similar in older and younger groups. Multivariate analyses revealed depressive symptoms were associated with NP test impairment in the younger group. In the older group, depressive symptoms were not associated with NP. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that depressive symptoms are associated with NP test impairment in younger HIV-infected individuals, but not in older individuals.
HubMed – depression


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