Depression Treatment: Olfactory Dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis: Evidence of a Decrease in Different Aspects of Olfactory Function.

Olfactory Dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis: Evidence of a Decrease in Different Aspects of Olfactory Function.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Eur Neurol. 2012 Dec 19; 69(3): 166-170
Rolet A, Magnin E, Millot JL, Berger E, Vidal C, Sileman G, Rumbach L

Background/Aims: Numerous authors have described olfactory dysfunction in multiple sclerosis (MS) in recent years. The aim of this study was to specify the aspects of olfactory perception that are most affected and to identify any correlations with clinical, anatomical and functional data. Methods: 50 patients with remitting or secondary progressive MS were included. Personal data were collected (medical history, characteristics of their disease, depression and disability scores and number of lesions on cerebral imaging). An olfactory test (Sniffin Sticks®) was used to evaluate subjects’ olfactory function. Results: The odor detection threshold is the most sensitive marker, with 40% of patients presenting hyposmia. The ability to identify odors is affected later on, and is inversely correlated with the level of disability. Conclusion: Our results confirm that several aspects of olfactory function are altered in MS, particularly those aspects requiring greater cognitive involvement, such as discrimination and identification of odors.
HubMed – depression


Structural and Electrical Myocardial Remodeling in a Rodent Model of Depression.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Psychosom Med. 2012 Dec 20;
Carnevali L, Trombini M, Rossi S, Graiani G, Manghi M, Koolhaas JM, Quaini F, Macchi E, Nalivaiko E, Sgoifo A

ObjectiveDespite a well-documented association between stress and depression with cardiac morbidity and mortality, there is no satisfactory explanation for the mechanisms linking affective and cardiac disorders. This study investigated cardiac electrophysiological properties in an animal model of depression.MethodsDepression-relevant physiological and behavioral parameters were measured in adult male wild-type rats during and after a period of intermittent social defeat stress (n = 12) or empty cage exposure (control, n = 11). Nine days after the last defeat/empty cage exposure, high-definition epicardial mapping was performed under anesthesia.ResultsStressed animals versus controls displayed a larger reduction in the circadian amplitude of heart rate (-32% [3%] versus -13 [2%]; p = .001) and body temperature (-33% [4%] versus -5% [2%]; p = .001) rhythms, had smaller body weight gain (+11% [1%] versus +17% [1%]; p < .001), and showed a larger reduction in sucrose solution intake (-19% [6%] versus -7% [4%]; p = .006). Epicardial mapping analysis revealed a decrease in the transversal conduction velocity of the wavefront (0.23 [0.0] versus 0.27 [0.1] m/s; p = .02) and a shortening of the effective refractory period (86.8 [2.1] versus 95.9 [3.0] milliseconds; p = .01) in stressed animals. Upon killing, moderate left ventricular fibrosis was observed in the stressed group.ConclusionsIntermittent social stress procedure is associated with depression-like symptoms and altered myocardial electrical stability in a potentially proarrhythmic manner. In particular, reduced myocardial refractoriness and impaired conduction, which are considered major determinants of arrhythmogenesis, represent possible mechanisms underlying cardiac vulnerability. HubMed – depression


Transdiagnostic, affect-focused, psychodynamic, guided self-help for depression and anxiety through the internet: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

BMJ Open. 2012; 2(6):
Johansson R, Hesser H, Ljótsson B, Frederick RJ, Andersson G

INTRODUCTION: Cognitive behaviour therapy delivered in the format of guided self-help via the internet has been found to be effective for a range of conditions, including depression and anxiety disorders. Recent results indicate that guided self-help via the internet is a promising treatment format also for psychodynamic therapy. However, to date and to our knowledge, no study has evaluated internet-delivered psychodynamic therapy as a transdiagnostic treatment. The affect-phobia model of psychopathology by McCullough et al provides a psychodynamic conceptualisation of a range of psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study will be to test the effects of a transdiagnostic guided self-help treatment based on the affect-phobia model in a sample of clients with depression and anxiety. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study will be a randomised controlled trial with a total sample size of 100 participants. The treatment group receives a 10-week, psychodynamic, guided self-help treatment based on the transdiagnostic affect-phobia model of psychopathology. The treatment consists of eight text-based treatment modules and includes therapist contact in a secure online environment. Participants in the control group receive similar online therapist support without any treatment modules. Outcome measures are the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale and the 7-item Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7). Process measures that concerns emotional processing and mindfulness are included. All outcome and process measures will be administered weekly via the internet and at 6-month follow-up. DISCUSSION: This trial will add to the body of knowledge on internet-delivered psychological treatments in general and to psychodynamic treatments in particular. We also hope to provide new insights in the effectiveness and working mechanisms of psychodynamic therapy based on the affect-phobia model.
HubMed – depression


Treatment Of Depression In Managed Care (Mental Health Practice Under...

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