Depression Treatment: Microbial Hitchhikers on Intercontinental Dust: Catching a Lift in Chad.

Microbial hitchhikers on intercontinental dust: catching a lift in Chad.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

ISME J. 2012 Dec 20;
Favet J, Lapanje A, Giongo A, Kennedy S, Aung YY, Cattaneo A, Davis-Richardson AG, Brown CT, Kort R, Brumsack HJ, Schnetger B, Chappell A, Kroijenga J, Beck A, Schwibbert K, Mohamed AH, Kirchner T, de Quadros PD, Triplett EW, Broughton WJ, Gorbushina AA

Ancient mariners knew that dust whipped up from deserts by strong winds travelled long distances, including over oceans. Satellite remote sensing revealed major dust sources across the Sahara. Indeed, the Bodélé Depression in the Republic of Chad has been called the dustiest place on earth. We analysed desert sand from various locations in Chad and dust that had blown to the Cape Verde Islands. High throughput sequencing techniques combined with classical microbiological methods showed that the samples contained a large variety of microbes well adapted to the harsh desert conditions. The most abundant bacterial groupings in four different phyla included: (a) Firmicutes-Bacillaceae, (b) Actinobacteria-Geodermatophilaceae, Nocardiodaceae and Solirubrobacteraceae, (c) Proteobacteria-Oxalobacteraceae, Rhizobiales and Sphingomonadaceae, and (d) Bacteroidetes-Cytophagaceae. Ascomycota was the overwhelmingly dominant fungal group followed by Basidiomycota and traces of Chytridiomycota, Microsporidia and Glomeromycota. Two freshwater algae (Trebouxiophyceae) were isolated. Most predominant taxa are widely distributed land inhabitants that are common in soil and on the surfaces of plants. Examples include Bradyrhizobium spp. that nodulate and fix nitrogen in Acacia species, the predominant trees of the Sahara as well as in Herbaspirillum (Oxalobacteraceae), a group of chemoorganotrophic free-living soil inhabitants that fix nitrogen in association with Gramineae roots. Few pathogenic strains were found, suggesting that African dust is not a large threat to public health.
HubMed – depression


The impact of common mental disorders on work ability in mentally and physically demanding construction work.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2012 Dec 20;
Boschman JS, van der Molen HF, Frings-Dresen MH, Sluiter JK

PURPOSE: To gain insight into (1) the prevalence and incidence of common mental disorders (CMD) and low work ability among bricklayers and construction supervisors; (2) the impact of CMD on current work ability and work ability 1 year later and (3) the added value of job-specific questions about work ability for detecting signs of low work ability. METHODS: We randomly selected 750 bricklayers and 750 supervisors. This sample was surveyed by means of a baseline questionnaire and a follow-up questionnaire 1 year later. Work ability was measured with the first three questions of the Work Ability Index and job-specific questions. Self-reported CMD were measured with instruments designed to detect a high need for recovery after work, distress and depression. We used univariate logistic regression to analyse the presence or absence of CMD as independent variable. RESULTS: The prevalence and incidence of CMD among 199 bricklayers and 224 supervisors was 22 %/10 % and 32 %/15 %, respectively. The prevalence of low general work ability was comparable for both occupations (5 %). CMD were associated with low current work ability and low work ability at follow-up (ORs 4.3-22.4), but not with a reduction in work ability 1 year later. Questions on job-specific work ability resulted in more indications of low work ability among both occupations than did questions on general work ability. CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of occupation, workers who report CMD at baseline have a high likelihood of current low work ability and low work ability 1 year later.
HubMed – depression


PAL inhibitor evokes different responses in two Hypericum species.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Plant Physiol Biochem. 2012 Nov 29; 63C: 82-88
Klejdus B, Ková?ik J, Babula P

Accumulation of secondary metabolites (general phenols, naphthodianthrones and phloroglucinol hyperforin) in Hypericum perforatum and Hypericum canariense after application of the inhibitor (2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid, AIP) of the pivotal enzyme of general phenylpropanoid pathway (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, PAL) was studied. Shoots of H. perforatum revealed more expressive growth depression, concomitantly with the inhibition of PAL activity (-60%) and decrease in soluble phenols and individual phenolic acids in response to AIP. Hypericins (hypericin, pseudohypericin and protohypericin) decreased while hyperforin increased in AIP-cultured H. perforatum. On the contrary, growth changes, decreases in soluble phenols and individual phenolic acids were less-visible in H. canariense. This was also reflected in restoration of PAL activity (+330%) and selected flavonoids even increased. Hypericins and hyperforin were present in several orders of magnitude lower amounts in comparison with H. perforatum. Increase in proline indicates potential compensatory antioxidative mechanism if phenols are depleted. Microscopy revealed also differences in secondary xylem formation and lignification between species after exposure to AIP.
HubMed – depression


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