Depression Treatment: Maternal Interpersonal Affiliation Is Associated With Adolescents’ Brain Structure and Reward Processing.

Maternal interpersonal affiliation is associated with adolescents’ brain structure and reward processing.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Transl Psychiatry. 2012; 2: e182
Schneider S, Brassen S, Bromberg U, Banaschewski T, Conrod P, Flor H, Gallinat J, Garavan H, Heinz A, Martinot JL, Nees F, Rietschel M, Smolka MN, Ströhle A, Struve M, Schumann G, Büchel C

Considerable animal and human research has been dedicated to the effects of parenting on structural brain development, focusing on hippocampal and prefrontal areas. Conversely, although functional imaging studies suggest that the neural reward circuitry is involved in parental affection, little is known about mothers’ interpersonal qualities in relation to their children’s brain structure and function. Moreover, gender differences concerning the effect of maternal qualities have rarely been investigated systematically. In 63 adolescents, we assessed structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging as well as interpersonal affiliation in their mothers. This allowed us to associate maternal affiliation with gray matter density and neural responses during different phases of the well-established Monetary Incentive Delay task. Maternal affiliation was positively associated with hippocampal and orbitofrontal gray matter density. Moreover, in the feedback of reward hit as compared with reward miss, an association with caudate activation was found. Although no significant gender effects were observed in these associations, during reward feedback as compared with baseline, maternal affiliation was significantly associated with ventral striatal and caudate activation only in females. Our findings demonstrate that maternal interpersonal affiliation is related to alterations in both the brain structure and reward-related activation in healthy adolescents. Importantly, the pattern is in line with typical findings in depression and post-traumatic stress disorder, suggesting that a lack of maternal affiliation might have a role in the genesis of mental disorders.
HubMed – depression


Emerging Risk Factors for Postpartum Depression: Serotonin Transporter Genotype and Omega-3 Fatty Acid Status.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Can J Psychiatry. 2012 Nov; 57(11): 704-712
Shapiro GD, Fraser WD, Séguin JR

Objective: Depression is a leading cause of disability and hospitalization. Women are at the highest risk of depression during their childbearing years, and the birth of a child may precipitate a depressive episode in vulnerable women. Postpartum depression (PPD) is associated with diminished maternal somatic health as well as health and developmental problems in their offspring. This review focuses on 2 PPD risk factors of emerging interest: serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) status. Method: The MEDLINE, PubMed, and Web of Science databases were searched using the key words postpartum depression, nutrition, omega-3 fatty acids, and serotonin transporter gene. Studies were also located by reviewing the reference lists of selected articles. Results: Seventy-five articles were identified as relevant to this review. Three carefully conducted studies reported associations between the 5-HTT genotype and PPD. As well, there is accumulating evidence that n-3 PUFA intake is associated with risk of PPD. Preliminary evidence suggests that there could be an interaction between these 2 emerging risk factors. However, further studies are required to confirm such an interaction and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Conclusions: Evidence to date supports a research agenda clarifying the associations between n-3 PUFAs, the 5-HTT genotype, and PPD. This is of particular interest owing to the high prevalence of poor n-3 PUFA intake among women of childbearing age and the consequent potential for alternative preventive measures and treatments for PPD.
HubMed – depression


Change in sense of coherence (SOC) and symptoms of depression among old non-demented persons 12 months after hospitalization.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2012 Nov 10;
Helvik AS, Engedal K, Selbæk G

We studied whether SOC of older adults (?65 years) without cognitive impairment had changed 1-year after medical hospitalization (T2) and to examine what factors were associated with the change. At baseline (T1) and (T2), the 13-item version of the SOC scale assessed coping, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) Scale assessed symptoms of depression and anxiety. The cognitive state was assessed by means of the mini-mental state examination (MMSE). Physical health was measured with the Charlson Index and functional status with Lawton and Brody’s scales for physical self-maintenance (PSMS) and the instrumental activities of daily living (I-ADL). In all, 97 (51 men) persons with a mean age of 75.3 (SD 6.3) years and Mini Mental State Evaluation (MMSE) score of 28.0 (SD 1.6) participated. The SOC improved significantly from baseline to 1-year later (mean 76.5, SD 11.4 vs. mean 79.1, SD 9.1, p?0.01). Improved SOC was associated with a low SOC at baseline and living without assistance during the study period. The prevalence of depression (HAD-D?8) and the mean depression (HAD-D) score did not change between the first and second data collection (HAD-D?8: 3.1% vs. 4.1% and HAD-D score: mean 1.8, SD 2.3 vs. mean 2.4, SD 2.4). However, an improved SOC and reduced anxiety symptoms at the second time point were associated with reduced HAD-D. The mean SOC improved 1-year after hospitalization. The symptoms of depression did not change, but reduction of symptoms of depression at the second time point was associated with improved SOC.
HubMed – depression



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