Depression Treatment: Genetic Diversity at Neutral and Adaptive Loci Determines Individual Fitness in a Long-Lived Territorial Bird.

Genetic diversity at neutral and adaptive loci determines individual fitness in a long-lived territorial bird.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Proc Biol Sci. 2012 May 2;
Agudo R, Carrete M, Alcaide M, Rico C, Hiraldo F, Donázar JA

There is compelling evidence about the manifest effects of inbreeding depression on individual fitness and populations’ risk of extinction. The majority of studies addressing inbreeding depression on wild populations are generally based on indirect measures of inbreeding using neutral markers. However, the study of functional loci, such as genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), is highly recommended. MHC genes constitute an essential component of the immune system of individuals, which is directly related to individual fitness and survival. In this study, we analyse heterozygosity fitness correlations of neutral and adaptive genetic variation (22 microsatellite loci and two loci of the MHC class II, respectively) with the age of recruitment and breeding success of a decimated and geographically isolated population of a long-lived territorial vulture. Our results indicate a negative correlation between neutral genetic diversity and age of recruitment, suggesting that inbreeding may be delaying reproduction. We also found a positive correlation between functional (MHC) genetic diversity and breeding success, together with a specific positive effect of the most frequent pair of cosegregating MHC alleles in the population. Globally, our findings demonstrate that genetic depauperation in small populations has a negative impact on the individual fitness, thus increasing the populations’ extinction risk.
HubMed – depression


Inflammation and Depression.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2012 May 3;
Zunszain PA, Hepgul N, Pariante CM

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a complex illness and it is likely that alterations in several interacting systems underlie its pathogenesis. Numerous hypotheses have been proposed to elucidate its origins. The inflammatory hypothesis emphasises the role of psycho-neuroimmunological dysfunctions. This is based on several observations: subsets of MDD patients have an altered peripheral immune system, with impaired cellular immunity and increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines; cytokines can influence neurotransmitter metabolism, neuroendocrine function and regional brain activity, all of which are relevant to depression; acute administration of cytokines causes sickness behaviour which shares features with depression, and patients undergoing cytokine treatment develop depressive symptoms. In this chapter, we discuss the evidence linking inflammation and MDD, looking at data from clinical and animal studies, the role of stress, possible mechanisms and the involvement of genetic polymorphisms. Further understanding of pathways involved is still needed. This will be vital for the identification of new drug targets and preventative strategies.
HubMed – depression


Synthesis of thiadiazole derivatives bearing hydrazone moieties and evaluation of their pharmacological effects on anxiety, depression, and nociception parameters in mice.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Arch Pharm Res. 2012 Mar; 35(4): 659-69
Can OD, Alt?ntop MD, Ozkay UD, Uçel UI, Do?ruer B, Kaplanc?kl? ZA

Novel thiadiazole derivatives bearing hydrazone moieties were synthesized through the reaction of 2-[(5-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)thio)]acetohydrazide with aldehydes/ketones. The chemical structures of the compounds were elucidated by (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, MS-FAB spectral data, and elemental analyses. Behavioral effects of the test compounds in mice were examined by hole-board, activity cage, tail suspension and modified forced swimming tests (MFST). Antinociceptive activities were evaluated using the hot-plate and tail-clip methods. Results of the experiments indicated that the test compounds did not significantly change the exploratory behaviors or locomotor activities of animals in the hole-board and activity cage tests, respectively. Administration of the reference drug fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) and compounds 3a, 3b, 3c, 3j, 3k, and 3l significantly shortened the immobility times of animals in the tail suspension and MFST tests, indicating the antidepressant-like effects of these derivatives. Morphine (10 mg/kg) and compounds 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, 3e, 3j, 3k, and 3l increased the reaction times of mice in both the hot-plate and tail-clip tests, indicating the antinociceptive effects of these compounds. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of central nervous system activities of chemical compounds carrying thiadiazole and hydrazone moieties together on their structures.
HubMed – depression



Depression : (5) The Effect of Treatment on the Brain – This exerpt from a presentation by Louis E. Kopolow,MD shows how the brain changes with successful treatment of Major Depressive Disorder.


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