Depression Treatment: [Effort-Reward Imbalance at Work and Depression : Current Research Evidence.]

[Effort-reward imbalance at work and depression : Current research evidence.]

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Nervenarzt. 2012 Nov 9;
Siegrist J

In view of highly prevalent stressful conditions in modern working life, in particular increasing work pressure and job insecurity, it is of interest to know whether specific constellations of an adverse psychosocial work environment increase the risk of depressive disorder among employed people. This contribution gives a short overview of current research evidence based on an internationally established work stress model of effort-reward imbalance. Taken together, results from seven prospective epidemiological investigations demonstrate a two-fold elevated relative risk of incident depressive disorder over a mean observation period of 2.7 years among exposed versus non-exposed employees. Additional findings from experimental and quasi-experimental studies point to robust associations of effort-reward imbalance at work with proinflammatory cytokines and markers of reduced immune competence. These latter markers may indicate potential psychobiological pathways. In conclusion, incorporating this new knowledge into medical treatment and preventive efforts seems well justified.
HubMed – depression


Homocysteine, folate, vitamin B-12, and physical function in older adults: cross-sectional findings from the Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Study.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Nov 7;
Ng TP, Aung KC, Feng L, Scherer SC, Yap KB

BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of studies, as well as inconsistent findings, on the associations of homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B-12 with physical function and decline in older persons. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the independent associations of homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B-12 with gait and balance performance and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) in community-living older persons. DESIGN: We performed cross-sectional analyses on baseline data of 796 respondents in the Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Study who had laboratory measurements of fasting homocysteine folate and vitamin B-12 and completed Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA) of gait and balance and self-reports of IADLs. RESULTS: In multivariate analyses in which sex, age, education, housing type, comorbidities, hospitalization, depression and global cognitive scores, BMI, creatinine, arthritis and hip fracture, serum albumin and hemoglobin, and physical activities were controlled for, we showed that homocysteine, independently of folate and vitamin B-12, showed significant negative associations with POMA balance (P = 0.02), POMA gait scores (P < 0.01), and IADL (P < 0.01). Serum folate showed a significant positive association only with POMA balance scores (P < 0.045). No significant independent associations for vitamin B-12 were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The independent association of elevated homocysteine and low folate, but not vitamin B-12, on physical and functional decline was supported in this study. Interventional studies of the physical functional effects of folate and vitamin B-12 status in different populations are needed. HubMed – depression


Room-temperature super-extraction system (RTSES) optimizes the anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like behavioural effects of traditional Xiao-Yao-San in mice.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Chin Med. 2012 Nov 7; 7(1): 24
Yin SH, Wang CC, Cheng TJ, Chang CY, Lin KC, Kan WC, Wang HY, Kao WM, Kuo YL, Chen JC, Li SL, Cheng CH, Chuu JJ

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Xiao-Yao-San (XYS) is a Chinese medicinal formula for treating anxiety and depression. This study aims to evaluate the use of a room-temperature super-extraction system (RTSES) to extract the major active components of XYS and enhance their psycho-pharmacological effects. METHODS: The neuroprotective roles of XYS/RTSES against reserpine-derived neurotoxicity were evaluated using a glial cell injury system (in vitro) and a depression-like C57BL/6 J mouse model (in vivo). The anxiolytic-behavioural effects were measured by the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test and the antidepressant effects were evaluated by the forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). Glucose tolerance and insulin resistance were assayed by ELISA. The expression of 5-HT1A receptors in the prefrontal cortex was examined by western blotting. RESULTS: XYS/RTSES (300 mug/mL) diminished reserpine-induced glial cell death more effectively than either XYS (300 mug/mL) or fluoxetine (30 muM) at 24 h (P = 0.0481 and P = 0.054, respectively). Oral administration of XYS/RTSES (500 mg/kg/day) for 4 consecutive weeks significantly elevated the ratios of entries (open arms/closed arms; P = 0.0177) and shuttle activity (P = 0.00149) on the EPM test, and reduced the immobility time by 90% on the TST (P = 0.00000538) and FST (P = 0.0000053839). XYS/RTSES also improved the regulation of blood glucose (P = 0.0305) and increased the insulin sensitivity (P = 0.0093). The Western blot results indicated that the activation of cerebral 5-HT1A receptors may be involved in the mechanisms of XYS/RTSES actions. CONCLUSION: The RTSES could provide a novel method for extracting effective anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like substances. XYS/RTSES improved the regulation of blood glucose and increased the insulin sensitivity in reserpine-induced anxiety and depression. Neuroprotection of glial cells and activation of cerebral 5-HT1A receptors were also involved.
HubMed – depression



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