Depression Treatment: Description and Predictive Factors of Individual Outcomes in a Refugee cAMP Based Mental Health Intervention (Beirut, Lebanon).

Description and predictive factors of individual outcomes in a refugee cAMP based mental health intervention (beirut, Lebanon).

Filed under: Depression Treatment

PLoS One. 2013; 8(1): e54107
Bastin P, Bastard M, Rossel L, Melgar P, Jones A, Antierens A

There is little evidence on the effectiveness of services for the care of people with mental disorders among refugee populations. Médecins sans Frontières (MSF) has established a mental health centre in a mixed urban-refugee population in Beirut to respond to the significant burden of mental health problems. Patients received comprehensive care through a multidisciplinary team. A cohort of people with common and severe mental disorders has been analysed between December 2008 and June 2011 to evaluate individual outcomes of treatment in terms of functionality.All patients diagnosed with mental disorders were included in the study. The Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and the Self Reporting Questionnaire-20 items (SRQ 20) were used as tools for baseline assessment, monitoring and evaluation of patients. Predictors of evolution of SRQ20 and GAF over visits were explored using a linear mixed model.Up to June 2011, 1144 patients were followed, 63.7% of them Lebanese, 31.8% Palestinians and 1.2% Iraqis. Females represented 64.2% of the patient population. Mean age was 39.2 years (28.5-46.5). The most frequent primary diagnoses were depressive disorders (28.8%), anxiety disorders (15.6%) and psychosis (11.5%). A lower baseline SRQ20 score/higher baseline GAF score (indicators of severity), being diagnosed with anxiety (compared to being diagnosed with depression or psychosis) and a higher level of education were associated with better outcomes.In this MSF program, we observed a significant decrease of SRQ20 individual scores and a significant increase of individual GAF scores. This corresponded to an improvement in the functionality of our patients. Analysis of the predictors of this positive evolution indicates that we need to adapt our model for the more severe and less educated patients. It also makes us reflect on the length of the individual follow-up. Further research could include a qualitative evaluation of the intervention. Results of this study have been presented at the World Congress of the World Federation for Mental Health in Cape Town, October 2011.
HubMed – depression


Deciphering the Metabolic Changes Associated with Diapause Syndrome and Cold Acclimation in the Two-Spotted Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

PLoS One. 2013; 8(1): e54025
Khodayari S, Moharramipour S, Larvor V, Hidalgo K, Renault D

Diapause is a common feature in several arthropod species that are subject to unfavorable growing seasons. The range of environmental cues that trigger the onset and termination of diapause, in addition to associated hormonal, biochemical, and molecular changes, have been studied extensively in recent years; however, such information is only available for a few insect species. Diapause and cold hardening usually occur together in overwintering arthropods, and can be characterized by recording changes to the wealth of molecules present in the tissue, hemolymph, or whole body of organisms. Recent technological advances, such as high throughput screening and quantification of metabolites via chromatographic analyses, are able to identify such molecules. In the present work, we examined the survival ability of diapausing and non-diapausing females of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, in the presence (0 or 5°C) or absence of cold acclimation. Furthermore, we examined the metabolic fingerprints of these specimens via gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS). Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) of metabolites revealed that major metabolic variations were related to diapause, indicating in a clear cut-off between diapausing and non-diapausing females, regardless of acclimation state. Signs of metabolic depression were evident in diapausing females, with most amino acids and TCA cycle intermediates being significantly reduced. Out of the 40 accurately quantified metabolites, seven metabolites remained elevated or were accumulated in diapausing mites, i.e. cadaverine, gluconolactone, glucose, inositol, maltose, mannitol and sorbitol. The capacity to accumulate winter polyols during cold-acclimation was restricted to diapausing females. We conclude that the induction of increased cold hardiness in this species is associated with the diapause syndrome, rather than being a direct effect of low temperature. Our results provide novel information about biochemical events related to the cold hardening process in the two-spotted spider mite.
HubMed – depression


Mixing plants from different origins to restore a declining population: ecological outcomes and local perceptions 10 years later.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

PLoS One. 2013; 8(1): e50934
Maurice AC, Abdelkrim J, Cisel M, Zavodna M, Bardin P, Matamoro A, Dumez R, Machon N

Populations of the Large-flowered Sandwort (Arenaria grandiflora L.) in the Fontainebleau forest (France) have declined rapidly during the last century. Despite the initiation of a protection program in 1991, less than twenty individuals remained by the late 1990s. The low fitness of these last plants, which is likely associated with genetic disorders and inbreeding depression, highlighted the need for the introduction of non-local genetic material to increase genetic diversity and thus restore Fontainebleau populations. Consequently, A. grandiflora was introduced at three distant sites in the Fontainebleau forest in 1999. Each of these populations was composed of an identical mix of individuals of both local and non-local origin that were obtained through in vitro multiplication. After establishment, the population status (number of individuals, diameter of the plants, and number of flowers) of the introduced populations was monitored. At present, two populations (one of which is much larger than the other) persist, while the third one became extinct in 2004. Analyses of the ecological parameters of the introduction sites indicated that differences in soil pH and moisture might have contributed to the differences in population dynamics. This introduction plan and its outcome attracted interest of local community, with those who supported the plan and regarded its 10-year result as a biological success (i.e., persistent populations were created), but also those who expressed reservations or disapproval of the plan and its outcome. To understand this controversy, a sociological study involving 27 semi-structured interviews was carried out. From these interviews emerged three areas of controversy: alteration of the identity of the plant, alteration of the identity of its territory, and the biological and ethical consequences of the techniques used for the experimental conservation.
HubMed – depression



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