Depression Treatment: Conceptual Measurement Framework for Help-Seeking for Mental Health Problems.

Conceptual measurement framework for help-seeking for mental health problems.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Psychol Res Behav Manag. 2012; 5: 173-83
Rickwood D, Thomas K

Despite a high level of research, policy, and practice interest in help-seeking for mental health problems and mental disorders, there is currently no agreed and commonly used definition or conceptual measurement framework for help-seeking.A systematic review of research activity in the field was undertaken to investigate how help-seeking has been conceptualized and measured. Common elements were used to develop a proposed conceptual measurement framework.The database search revealed a very high level of research activity and confirmed that there is no commonly applied definition of help-seeking and no psychometrically sound measures that are routinely used. The most common element in the help-seeking research was a focus on formal help-seeking sources, rather than informal sources, although studies did not assess a consistent set of professional sources; rather, each study addressed an idiosyncratic range of sources of professional health and community care. Similarly, the studies considered help-seeking for a range of mental health problems and no consistent terminology was applied. The most common mental health problem investigated was depression, followed by use of generic terms, such as mental health problem, psychological distress, or emotional problem. Major gaps in the consistent measurement of help-seeking were identified.It is evident that an agreed definition that supports the comparable measurement of help-seeking is lacking. Therefore, a conceptual measurement framework is proposed to fill this gap. The framework maintains that the essential elements for measurement are: the part of the help-seeking process to be investigated and respective time frame, the source and type of assistance, and the type of mental health concern. It is argued that adopting this framework will facilitate progress in the field by providing much needed conceptual consistency. Results will then be able to be compared across studies and population groups, and this will significantly benefit understanding of policy and practice initiatives aimed at improving access to and engagement with services for people with mental health concerns.
HubMed – depression

 

Relationship between severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and schizotypy in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2012; 8: 579-83
Yamamoto H, Tsuchida H, Nakamae T, Nishida S, Sakai Y, Fujimori A, Narumoto J, Wada Y, Yoshida T, Taga C, Fukui K

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients exhibit a noninhibition response pattern very similar to that observed in schizotypy patients in cognitive tasks. It has been suggested that the reduced cognitive inhibition observed in both schizotypy and OCD may result in the frequent entry into awareness of unacceptable urges and intrusive thoughts. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the severity of obsession or compulsion and schizotypy in OCD.Sixty subjects (25 males and 35 females) who were OCD outpatients in the University Hospital at the Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine during the period 2008-2010 were enrolled in the study. Assessments of these patients were made using the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A). The Pearson correlation coefficients between Y-BOCS and SPQ scores were calculated. Furthermore, hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to assess whether schizotypy predicted the severity of obsession and compulsion.By calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient, it was found that the Y-BOCS obsession score, not the Y-BOCS compulsion score, was correlated with the SPQ total score. Results of the hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis showed that SPQ total score was a significant predictor of the Y-BOCS obsession score, after accounting for control variables (ie, HAM-D and HAM-A).Results of this study showed that the Y-BOCS obsession score, not the Y-BOCS compulsion score, was correlated with the SPQ total score. This finding suggests that OCD patients with an elevated SPQ total score experience a reduction of cognitive inhibition, resulting in the frequent entry into obsession. Future longitudinal studies are recommended to clarify the effect of schizotypy on the clinical course of OCD.
HubMed – depression

 

Deviating From the Norm: Body Mass Index (BMI) Differences and Psychosocial Adjustment Among Early Adolescent Girls.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

J Pediatr Psychol. 2012 Dec 17;
Lanza HI, Echols L, Graham S

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether deviation from one’s ethnic group norm on body mass index (BMI) was related to psychosocial maladjustment among early adolescent girls, and whether specific ethnic groups were more vulnerable to maladjustment. METHODS: Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted on self- and peer-report measures from an ethnically diverse sample of sixth-grade girls (N = 2,636). RESULTS: African Americans and Latinas had a higher mean BMI than Asians and Whites. As deviation from their ethnic group BMI norm increased, girls reported greater social anxiety, depression, peer victimization, and lower self-worth, and had lower peer-reported social status. Associations were specific to girls deviating toward obesity status. Ethnic differences revealed that Asian girls deviating toward obesity status were particularly vulnerable to internalizing symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Emotional maladjustment may be more severe among overweight/obese girls whose ethnic group BMI norm is furthest away from overweight/obesity status. Implications for obesity work with ethnically diverse adolescents were discussed.
HubMed – depression

 


 

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