Depression in the Elderly With Visual Impairment and Its Association With Quality of Life.

Depression in the elderly with visual impairment and its association with quality of life.

Clin Interv Aging. 2013; 8: 931-43
Renaud J, Bédard E

Visual impairment is more prevalent in the elderly and depression is common in this population. Although many studies have investigated depression or quality of life (QOL) in older adults with visual impairment, few have looked at the association between these two concepts for this population. The aim of this systematized review was to describe the association between depression and QOL in older adults with visual impairment.A search was done using multiple electronic databases for studies addressing the relationship between QOL and depression in elders with visual impairment. The concept of QOL was divided into two different approaches, ie, QOL as achievement and QOL as subjective well-being. Comparison of QOL scores between participants with and without depression (Cohen’s d) and correlations between depression and QOL (Pearson’s r) were examined.Thirteen studies reported in 18 articles were included in the review. Nearly all of the studies revealed that better QOL was moderately to strongly correlated with less severe depressive symptoms (r = 0.22-0.68 for QOL as achievement; r = 0.68 and 0.72 for QOL as subjective well-being). Effect sizes for the QOL differences between the groups with and without depression ranged from small to large (d = 0.17 to 0.95 for QOL as achievement; no data for QOL as subjective well-being).Additional studies are necessary to pinpoint further the determinants and mediators of this relationship. Considering the high prevalence rate of depression in this community and its disabling effects on QOL, interventions to prevent and treat depression are essential. More efforts are needed in clinical settings to train health care practitioners to identify depressed elders with visual impairment and provide appropriate treatment. HubMed – depression

Determinants for undetected dementia and late-life depression.

Br J Psychiatry. 2013 Jul 25;
Chen R, Hu Z, Chen RL, Ma Y, Zhang D, Wilson K

Determinants for undetected dementia and late-life depression have been not well studied.To investigate risk factors for undetected dementia and depression in older communities.Using the method of the 10/66 algorithm, we interviewed a random sample of 7072 participants aged ?60 years in six provinces of China during 2007-2011. We documented doctor-diagnosed dementia and depression in the interview. Using the validated 10/66 algorithm we diagnosed dementia (n = 359) and depression (n = 328).We found that 93.1% of dementia and 92.5% of depression was undetected. Both undetected dementia and depression were significantly associated with low levels of education and occupation, and living in a rural area. The risk of undetected dementia was also associated with ‘help available when needed’, and inversely, with a family history of mental illness and having functional impairment. Undetected depression was significantly related to female gender, low income, having more children and inversely with having heart disease.Older adults in China have high levels of undetected dementia and depression. General socioeconomic improvement, associated with mental health education, targeting high-risk populations are likely to increase detection of dementia and depression in older adults, providing a backdrop for culturally acceptable service development. HubMed – depression

Use of Insulin to Decrease Septic Shock-Induced Myocardial Depression in a Porcine Model.

Inflammation. 2013 Jul 26;
Levenbrown Y, Penfil S, Rodriguez E, Zhu Y, Hossain J, Bhat AM, Hesek A, O’Neil KB, Tobin K, Shaffer TH

Insulin is known to attenuate septic shock-induced myocardial depression. Possible mechanisms include an anti-inflammatory or inotropic effect of insulin. The objective of this study was to determine whether the mechanism of action of insulin in attenuating septic shock-induced myocardial depression is through an immunomodulatory effect. Fourteen pigs were assigned to one of two groups. Both groups received a 4-h infusion of lipopolysaccharide endotoxin from Escherichia coli 0111:B4. Group 2 additionally received insulin at 1.5 U/kg/h with infusions of D50 normal saline and KCl to maintain normal serum glucose and potassium levels. Cardiac function was measured with shortening fraction using transthoracic echocardiogram. Plasma TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 levels were obtained every 30 min. Postmortem cytokine analysis and histomorphology were performed on the heart tissue. Although insulin attenuated septic shock-induced myocardial depression, this was not due to an anti-inflammatory effect and, therefore, likely resulted from an inotropic effect of insulin. HubMed – depression

[Effect of comorbid depression on the development and course of alcohol dependence.]

Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2013; 113(6 Vypusk 2 Alkogolizm): 27-32
Rybakova KV, Rybakova TG, Neznanov NG, Eryshev OF

It was compared 72 patients with alcohol dependence (AD) and endogenous depression (ED) and 30 patients with AD without comorbid affective pathology. It has been shown that the development of alcohol dependence in individuals with ED is slower than in patients without ED. A lack of a family history of addictive pathology was noted to be a predictor of a more favorable course of alcohol dependence in patients with ED. HubMed – depression

[Nootropics and antioxidants in the complex therapy of symptomatic posttraumatic epilepsy.]

Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2013; 113(6): 26-34
Savenkov AA, Badalian OL, Avakian GN

To study the possibility of application of nootropics and antioxidants in the complex antiepileptic therapy, we examined 75 patients with symptomatic focal posttraumatic epilepsy. A statistically significant reduction in the number of epileptic seizures, improvement of cognitive function and quality of life of the patients as well as a decrease in the severity of depression and epileptic changes in the EEG were identified. The potentiation of antiepileptic activity of basic drugs, normalization of brain’s electrical activity and reduction in EEG epileptiform activity, in particular coherent indicators of slow-wave activity, were noted after treatment with the antioxidant mexidol. A trend towards the improvement of neuropsychological performance and quality of life was observed. There was a lack of seizure aggravation typical of many nootropic drugs. Thus, phenotropil and mexidol can be recommended for complex treatment of symptomatic posttraumatic epilepsy. HubMed – depression