Deleuze and the Theory of Addiction.

Deleuze and the theory of addiction.

J Psychoactive Drugs. 2013 Jan-Mar; 45(1): 57-67
Oksanen A

This theoretical article presents and applies the theories of the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze. The article takes as its starting point the observation that current biomedical, social and psychological research does not provide a coherent view of the nature of addiction and there is a great deal of controversy in the field. The material philosophy of Deleuze provides the opportunity to introduce new ideas and bridge the gaps between different theories and approaches. Deleuze’s philosophy is especially useful since neurological research on addiction has developed rapidly. Deleuzian concepts have implications not only for the general theory of addiction, but also for different theories on treatment and recovery. A Deleuzian theory, developed in this article, analyzes addictions as situational and interactional processes. Alcohol and drugs are used because they are connected with situations and interactions that enable the production of desire. They change and alter the body. Addiction alters the production of desire and life itself begins to be reduced to alcohol, drugs or a specific mode of behavior. Recovery from addictions is connected with the changes in life that offer subjects an open future. A recovering body must increase its capacity to be affected and be capable of creating new biopsychosocial connections of desire. HubMed – addiction


Adenovirus Capsid-based Anti-cocaine Vaccine Prevents Cocaine from Binding to the Nonhuman Primate CNS Dopamine Transporter.

Neuropsychopharmacology. 2013 May 10;
Maoz A, Hicks MJ, Vallabhjosula S, Synan M, Kothari PJ, Dyke JP, Ballon DJ, Kaminsky SM, De BP, Rosenberg JB, Martinez D, Koob GF, Janda KD, Crystal RG

Cocaine addiction is a major problem for which there is no approved pharmacotherapy. We have developed a vaccine to cocaine (dAd5GNE), based on the cocaine analog GNE linked to the capsid proteins of a serotype 5 adenovirus, designed to evoke anti-cocaine antibodies which sequester cocaine in the blood, preventing access to the CNS. To assess the efficacy of dAd5GNE in a large animal model, positron emission tomography (PET) and the radiotracer [(11)C]PE2I were used to measure cocaine occupancy of the dopamine transporter (DAT) in nonhuman primates. Repeat administration of dAd5GNE induced high anti-cocaine titers. Before vaccination, cocaine displaced PE2I from DAT in the caudate and putamen, resulting in 62±4% cocaine occupancy. In contrast, dAd5GNE vaccinated animals showed reduced cocaine occupancy such that when anti-cocaine titers were >4 × 10(5), the cocaine occupancy was reduced to levels of less than 20%, significantly below the 47% threshold required to evoke the subjective “high” reported in humans.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 10 May 2013; doi:10.1038/npp.2013.114. HubMed – addiction


Validity of the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) as a screener for adult ADHD in treatment seeking substance use disorder patients.

Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013 May 6;
van de Glind G, van den Brink W, Koeter MW, Carpentier PJ, van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen K, Kaye S, Skutle A, Bu ET, Franck J, Konstenius M, Moggi F, Dom G, Verspreet S, Demetrovics Z, Kapitány-Fövény M, Fatséas M, Auriacombe M, Schillinger A, Seitz A, Johnson B, Faraone SV, Ramos-Quiroga JA, Casas M, Allsop S, Carruthers S, Barta C, Schoevers RA, , Levin FR

BACKGROUND: To detect attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in treatment seeking substance use disorders (SUD) patients, a valid screening instrument is needed. OBJECTIVES: To test the performance of the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale V 1.1(ASRS) for adult ADHD in an international sample of treatment seeking SUD patients for DSM-IV-TR; for the proposed DSM-5 criteria; in different subpopulations, at intake and 1-2 weeks after intake; using different scoring algorithms; and different externalizing disorders as external criterion (including adult ADHD, bipolar disorder, antisocial and borderline personality disorder). METHODS: In 1138 treatment seeking SUD subjects, ASRS performance was determined using diagnoses based on Conner’s Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV (CAADID) as gold standard. RESULTS: The prevalence of adult ADHD was 13.0% (95% CI: 11.0-15.0%). The overall positive predictive value (PPV) of the ASRS was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.22-0.30), the negative predictive value (NPV) was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.96-0.98). The sensitivity (0.84, 95% CI: 0.76-0.88) and specificity (0.66, 95% CI: 0.63-0.69) measured at admission were similar to the sensitivity (0.88, 95% CI: 0.83-0.93) and specificity (0.67, 95% CI: 0.64-0.70) measured 2 weeks after admission. Sensitivity was similar, but specificity was significantly better in patients with alcohol compared to (illicit) drugs as the primary substance of abuse (0.76 vs. 0.56). ASRS was not a good screener for externalizing disorders other than ADHD. CONCLUSIONS: The ASRS is a sensitive screener for identifying possible ADHD cases with very few missed cases among those screening negative in this population. HubMed – addiction


Why South Africa’s proposed advertising ban matters.

Addiction. 2013 May 10;
Jernigan D

HubMed – addiction