Cytochrome P450-Mediated Drug Metabolism in the Brain.

Cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism in the brain.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2012 Dec 4; 37(6): 120133
Miksys S, Tyndale RF

Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) metabolize many drugs that act on the central nervous system (CNS), such as antidepressants and antipsychotics; drugs of abuse; endogenous neurochemicals, such as serotonin and dopamine; neurotoxins; and carcinogens. This takes place primarily in the liver, but metabolism can also occur in extrahepatic organs, including the brain. This is important for CNS-acting drugs, as variation in brain CYP-mediated metabolism may be a contributing factor when plasma levels do not predict drug response. This review summarizes the characterization of CYPs in the brain, using examples from the CYP2 subfamily, and discusses sources of variation in brain CYP levels and metabolism. Some recent experiments are described that demonstrate how changes in brain CYP metabolism can influence drug response, toxicity and drug-induced behaviours. Advancing knowledge of brain CYP-mediated metabolism may help us understand why patients respond differently to drugs used in psychiatry and predict risk for psychiatric disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases and substance abuse.
HubMed – addiction


Alcohol and young people: What the legislation says about access and secondary supply.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Drug Alcohol Rev. 2012 Dec 3;
Roche AM, Steenson T, Andrew R

ISSUE: The rationale and potential impact of Australia’s recent legislative changes regulating secondary supply of alcohol to minors, particularly on private premises. APPROACH: An examination of similarities and differences between state and territory liquor licensing legislation regulating secondary supply of alcohol to minors was undertaken. KEY FINDINGS: The Northern Territory, New South Wales, Queensland, Tasmania and Victoria prohibit supply of alcohol to minors on private premises, except by parents/guardians/authorised persons. Northern Territory, Queensland and Tasmanian legislation also prescribes that supply must occur responsibly and under supervision. Elsewhere, alcohol supply to minors on private premises is unregulated. These legislative changes reflect the ‘familialisation’ of adolescent drinking. IMPLICATIONS: Recent legislative amendments regulating secondary supply on private premises may indicate growing awareness of adolescent alcohol-related harms and signal a shift in community norms. However, sociocultural factors, misunderstanding and challenges in enforcing the legislation may limit compliance. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in secondary supply legislation need effective dissemination as divergence between states and territories may result in confusion about legal responsibilities. A national approach may be warranted to help set community boundaries for young people’s drinking.
HubMed – addiction



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