Cyclodextrin-Containing Polymers: Versatile Platforms of Drug Delivery Materials.

Cyclodextrin-containing polymers: versatile platforms of drug delivery materials.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

J Drug Deliv. 2012; 2012: 262731
Heidel JD, Schluep T

Nanoparticles are being widely explored as potential therapeutics for numerous applications in medicine and have been shown to significantly improve the circulation, biodistribution, efficacy, and safety profiles of multiple classes of drugs. One leading class of nanoparticles involves the use of linear, cyclodextrin-containing polymers (CDPs). As is discussed in this paper, CDPs can incorporate therapeutic payloads into nanoparticles via covalent attachment of prodrug/drug molecules to the polymer (the basis of the Cyclosert platform) or by noncovalent inclusion of cationic CDPs to anionic, nucleic acid payloads (the basis of the RONDEL platform). For each of these two approaches, we review the relevant molecular architecture and its rationale, discuss the physicochemical and biological properties of these nanoparticles, and detail the progress of leading drug candidates for each that have achieved clinical evaluation. Finally, we look ahead to potential future directions of investigation and product candidates based upon this technology.
HubMed – drug


Prevalence of HIV Drug Resistance Mutations in HIV Type 1 Isolates in Antiretroviral Therapy Naïve Population from Northern India.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

AIDS Res Treat. 2012; 2012: 905823
Sinha S, Ahmad H, Shekhar RC, Kumar N, Dar L, Samantaray JC, Sharma SK, Bhargava A, Pandey RM, Mitsuyasu RL, Fahey JL

Objective. The increased use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has reduced the morbidity and mortality associated with HIV, adversely leading to the emergence of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR). In this study we aim to evaluate the prevalence of HIVDR mutations in ART-naive HIV-1 infected patients from northern India. Design. Analysis was performed using Viroseq genotyping system based on sequencing of entire protease and two-thirds of the Reverse Transcriptase (RT) region of pol gene. Results. Seventy three chronic HIV-1 infected ART naïve patients eligible for first line ART were enrolled from April 2006 to August 2008. In 68 patients DNA was successfully amplified and sequencing was done. 97% of HIV-1 strains belonged to subtype C, and one each to subtype A1 and subtype B. The overall prevalence of primary DRMs was 2.9% [2/68, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.3%-10.2%]. One patient had a major RT mutation M184V, known to confer resistance to lamivudine, and another had a major protease inhibitor (PI) mutation D30N that imparts resistance to nelfinavir. Conclusion. Our study shows that primary HIVDR mutations have a prevalence of 2.9% among ART-naive chronic HIV-1 infected individuals.
HubMed – drug


Modulation of vasomotive activity in rabbit external ophthalmic artery by neuropeptides.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

J Ophthalmol. 2012; 2012: 498565
Delgado ES, Marques-Neves C, Rocha MI, Sales-Luís JP, Silva-Carvalho LF

Purpose. To investigate the vasomotive activity upon the external ophthalmic artery of vasointestinal peptide (VIP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) using a previously developed model. Methods. Isolated rabbit eyes (n = 12) were perfused in situ with tyrode through the external ophthalmic artery. Effects of intra-arterial injections of NPY 200??g/ml (Group A; n = 6) and VIP 200??g/ml (Group B; n = 6) on the recorded pressure were obtained. For statistical analysis, Student’s paired t-test and Fast Fourier Transform were used. Results. Spontaneous oscillations were observed before any drug administration in the 12 rabbit models. NPY produced an increase in total vascular resistance and a higher frequency and amplitude of oscillations, while VIP evoked the opposite effects. Conclusions. This study provides evidence of vasomotion in basal conditions in rabbit external ophthalmic artery. Concerning drug effects, NPY increased arterial resistance and enhanced vasomotion while VIP produced opposite effects which demonstrates their profound influence in arterial vasomotion.
HubMed – drug



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