Cotinine: Beyond That Expected, More Than a Biomarker of Tobacco Consumption.

Cotinine: Beyond that Expected, More than a Biomarker of Tobacco Consumption.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Front Pharmacol. 2012; 3: 173
Moran VE

A greater incidence of tobacco consumption occurs among individuals with psychiatric conditions including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), bipolar disorder, major depression, and schizophrenia, compared with the general population. Even when still controversial, it has been postulated that smoking is a form of self-medication that reduces psychiatric symptoms among individuals with these disorders. To better understand the component(s) of tobacco-inducing smoking behavior, greater attention has been directed toward nicotine. However, in recent years, new evidence has shown that cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine, exhibits beneficial effects over psychiatric symptoms and may therefore promote smoking within this population. Some of the behavioral effects of cotinine compared to nicotine are discussed here. Cotinine, which accumulates in the body as a result of tobacco exposure, crosses the blood-brain barrier and has different pharmacological properties compared with nicotine. Cotinine has a longer plasma half-life than nicotine and showed no addictive or cardiovascular effects in humans. In addition, at the preclinical level, cotinine facilitated the extinction of fear memory and anxiety after fear conditioning, improved working memory in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and in a monkey model of schizophrenia. Altogether, the new evidence suggests that the pharmacological and behavioral effects of cotinine may play a key role in promoting tobacco smoking in individuals that suffer from psychiatric conditions and represents a new potential therapeutic agent against psychiatric conditions such as AD and PTSD.
HubMed – addiction


Diagnosing Alcohol and Cannabis Use Disorders in Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder: A Preliminary Investigation.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

J Dual Diagn. 2012 1; 8(1): 13-18
Black JJ, Heffner JL, Anthenelli RM, Beavers JN, Albertz A, Blom T, Adler C, Delbello MP

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this report was to examine the accuracy of diagnosing substance use disorders in manic adolescents with bipolar disorder. METHODS: The substance use disorder modules of the KSADS-PL were administered to a sample of 80 manic adolescents (12-21 years old) with co-occurring bipolar and substance use disorders. Initial substance use disorder diagnoses obtained from the KSADS-PL were then compared to a best-estimate diagnosis derived from all available information, including a second diagnostic interview, the Child Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism, Adolescent version (C-SSAGA-A). RESULTS: Relatively low diagnostic agreement was achieved across the initial and the best estimate diagnoses for both alcohol and cannabis use disorders. Age, race, and sex did not predict diagnostic agreement between the two evaluations. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study call for more research on diagnosing substance use disorders and suggest that a single interview alone may not be accurate for diagnosing substance use disorders in manic adolescents with bipolar disorder.
HubMed – addiction


Co-occurring Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Alcohol Use Disorders in Veteran Populations.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

J Dual Diagn. 2011 10; 7(4): 285-299
Carter AC, Capone C, Short EE

Co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorders have become increasingly prevalent in military populations. Over the past decade, PTSD has emerged as one of the most common forms of psychopathology among the 1.7 million American military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), and Operation New Dawn (OND). Among veterans from all eras, symptoms of PTSD have been highly correlated with hazardous drinking, leading to greater decreases in overall health and greater difficulties readjusting to civilian life. In fact, a diagnosis of co-occurring PTSD and alcohol use disorder has proven more detrimental than a diagnosis of PTSD or alcohol use disorder alone. In order to effectively address co-occurring PTSD and alcohol use disorder, both the clinical and research communities have focused on better understanding this comorbidity, as well as increasing treatment outcomes among the veteran population. The purpose of the present article is threefold: (1) present a case study that highlights the manner in which PTSD and alcohol use disorder co-develop after trauma exposure; (2) present scientific theories on co – occurrence of PTSD and alcohol use disorder; and (3) present current treatment options for addressing this common comorbidity.
HubMed – addiction


Examining Concurrent Validity and Predictive Utility for the Addiction Severity Index and Texas Christian University (TCU) Short Forms.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

J Offender Rehabil. 2012 1; 51(1-2): 78-95
Pankow J, Simpson DD, Joe GW, Rowan-Szal GA, Knight K, Meason P

Treatment providers need tools which are designed to identify risk, treatment needs, and monitor client engagement. These are essential components in substance abuse treatment for offender populations. This study evaluated a flexible set of 1-page modular assessments known as the TCU Short Forms and compared them with the measures of global domains contained in the Addiction Severity Index (ASI). The sample was based on 540 adult males and females in corrections-based substance abuse treatment services located in Arkansas and Missouri. Results suggest the set of TCU forms and ASI both reliably represent core clinical domains, but TCU Short Forms explained more variance in therapeutic engagement criteria measured during treatment. Similarities and differences of the assessment tools are discussed, along with applications.
HubMed – addiction



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