Cost-Effectiveness of Zofenopril in Patients With Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction After Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Post Hoc Analysis of SMILE-4.

Cost-effectiveness of zofenopril in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction: a post hoc analysis of SMILE-4.

Clinicoecon Outcomes Res. 2013; 5: 317-25
Borghi C, Ambrosioni E, Omboni S, Cicero AF, Bacchelli S, Esposti DD, Novo S, Vinereanu D, Ambrosio G, Reggiardo G, Zava D

In SMILE-4 (the Survival of Myocardial Infarction Long-term Evaluation 4 study), zofenopril + acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) was superior to ramipril + ASA in reducing the occurrence of major cardiovascular events in patients with left ventricular dysfunction following acute myocardial infarction. The present post hoc analysis was performed to compare the cost-effectiveness of zofenopril and ramipril.In total, 771 patients with left ventricular dysfunction and acute myocardial infarction were randomized in a double-blind manner to receive zofenopril 60 mg/day (n = 389) or ramipril 10 mg/day (n = 382) + ASA 100 mg/day and were followed up for one year. The primary study endpoint was the one-year combined occurrence of death or hospitalization for cardiovascular causes. The economic analysis was based on evaluation of cost of medications and hospitalizations and was applied to the intention-to-treat population (n = 716). Cost data were drawn from the National Health Service databases of the European countries participating in the study. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was used to quantify the cost per event prevented with zofenopril versus ramipril.Zofenopril significantly (P = 0.028) reduced the risk of the primary study endpoint by 30% as compared with ramipril (95% confidence interval, 4%-49%). The number needed to treat to prevent a major cardiovascular event with zofenopril was 13 less than with ramipril. The cost of drug therapies was higher with zofenopril (328.78 Euros per patient per year, n = 365) than with ramipril (165.12 Euros per patient per year, n = 351). The cost related to the occurrence of major cardiovascular events requiring hospitalization averaged 4983.64 Euros for zofenopril and 4850.01 Euros for ramipril. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for zofenopril versus ramipril was 2125.45 Euros per event prevented (worst and best case scenario in the sensitivity analysis was 3590.09 and 3243.96 Euros, respectively).Zofenopril is a viable and cost-effective treatment for managing patients with left ventricular dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction. HubMed – drug

Novel preparation method for sustained-release PLGA microspheres using water-in-oil-in-hydrophilic-oil-in-water emulsion.

Int J Nanomedicine. 2013; 8: 2433-41
Hong X, Wei L, Ma L, Chen Y, Liu Z, Yuan W

An increasing number of drugs are needing improved formulations to optimize patient compliance because of their short half-lives in blood. Sustained-release formulations of drugs are often required for long-term efficacy, and microspheres are among the most popular ones. When drugs are encapsulated into microsphere formulations, different methods of preparation need to be used according to specific clinical requirements and the differing physicochemical characteristics of individual drugs. In this work, we developed a novel method for sustained-release drug delivery using a water-in-oil-in-hydrophilic oil-in-water (w/o/oh/w) emulsion to encapsulate a drug into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres. Different effects were achieved by varying the proportions and concentrations of hydrophilic oil and PLGA. Scanning electron and optical microscopic images showed the surfaces of the microspheres to be smooth and that their morphology was spherical. Microspheres prepared using the w/o/oh/w emulsion were able to load protein efficiently and had sustained-release properties. These results indicate that the above-mentioned method might be useful for developing sustained-release microsphere formulations in the future. HubMed – drug

Multiparametric approach for the evaluation of lipid nanoparticles for siRNA delivery.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Jul 23;
Alabi CA, Love KT, Sahay G, Yin H, Luly KM, Langer R, Anderson DG

Nanoparticle-mediated siRNA delivery is a complex process that requires transport across numerous extracellular and intracellular barriers. As such, the development of nanoparticles for efficient delivery would benefit from an understanding of how parameters associated with these barriers relate to the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles. Here, we use a multiparametric approach for the evaluation of lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) to identify relationships between structure, biological function, and biological activity. Our results indicate that evaluation of multiple parameters associated with barriers to delivery such as siRNA entrapment, pKa, LNP stability, and cell uptake as a collective may serve as a useful prescreening tool for the advancement of LNPs in vivo. This multiparametric approach complements the use of in vitro efficacy results alone for prescreening and improves in vitro-in vivo translation by minimizing false negatives. For the LNPs used in this work, the evaluation of multiple parameters enabled the identification of LNP pKa as one of the key determinants of LNP function and activity both in vitro and in vivo. It is anticipated that this type of analysis can aid in the identification of meaningful structure-function-activity relationships, improve the in vitro screening process of nanoparticles before in vivo use, and facilitate the future design of potent nanocarriers. HubMed – drug