Consanguineous Mating, Specialization, and the Environment: How Multiple Variable Interactions Affect the Evolution of Dioecy.

Consanguineous mating, specialization, and the environment: How multiple variable interactions affect the evolution of dioecy.

Am J Bot. 2013 Apr 25;
Sinclair JP, Maxwell GD, Freeman DC

• Premise: The evolution of dioecy in plants is usually modeled as a consequence of self-fertilization. While increased seed and pollen production and dispersal patterns of specialized unisexuals have been examined, mating among relatives and interaction effects have been largely ignored. Here, we examine multiple variables simultaneously providing a more ecologically realistic set of conditions favoring the evolution of dioecy.• Methods: We developed two complementary models to explore the evolution of dioecious plants. In both models, we examined the effects of inbreeding, compensation, and specialization on unisexual invasibility and were able to directly measure the influence of related matings on such a system.• Key results: Our results support previous studies indicating dispersal specialization, consanguineous mating, and inbreeding depression facilitate the evolution of dioecy. However, our results suggest that it is the interaction effect of multiple forces acting simultaneously that allows for unisexual invasion at thresholds and frequencies witnessed in nature. Additionally, our results suggest that subdioecious populations often result, and depending on population conditions, dioecy evolves at different rates, lending importance to the ecological and life history conditions of the species.• Conclusion: Mating among relatives significantly enhances the invasibility of a unisexual mutant into a hermaphroditic population and lowers the levels of inbreeding depression required for invasion than previously reported conditions for unisexual invasion especially, if we consider multiple pressures simultaneously. HubMed – depression


Depression and anxiety issue information.

Depress Anxiety. 2013 May; 30(5): na

HubMed – depression


Confidence Analyses of Self-Interpretation and Self-Description in Depressive Behaviour.

J Psycholinguist Res. 2013 Apr 26;
Rothuber H, Leibetseder M, Mitterauer B

The present paper represents an investigation in the procedure to validate a new questionnaire (Salzburg Subjective Behavioural Analysis, SSBA). This questionnaire is based on a new approach to the diagnosis of depressive behaviour. It is hypothesized that a patient suffering from a depressive disorder loses the ability to produce one or more modes of behaviour at a given time and simultaneously has the urge to produce one or more modes of behaviour constantly. Although the patient is capable of describing this behavioural disorder, he/she is unable to interpret it confidently. This inability of interpretation of depressive behaviour assessed with the SSBA may represent a special kind of cognitive impairment in depression that is tested in conducting an analysis of confidence. The analysis of confidence shows that the capability of interpretation in the patient group is significantly impaired. Finally, a discriminant analysis allows to differentiate between depressive behaviour and normal behaviour based on the questionnaire. HubMed – depression


Computational modeling of the direct hydride transfer mechanism for the MAO catalyzed oxidation of phenethylamine and benzylamine: ONIOM (QM/QM) calculations.

J Neural Transm. 2013 Apr 26;
Akyüz MA, Erdem SS

Monoamine oxidases are two isozymic flavoenzymes which are the important targets for drugs used in the treatment of depression, Parkinson and Alzheimer’s diseases. The catalytic reaction taking place between the cofactor FAD and amine substrate is still not completely understood. Herein we employed quantum chemical methods on the recently proposed direct hydride transfer mechanism including full active site residues of MAO isoforms in the calculations. Activation free energy barriers of direct hydride transfer mechanism for MAO-A and MAO-B were calculated by ONIOM (our own n-layered integrated molecular orbital + molecular mechanics) method with QM/QM (quantum mechanics:quantum mechanics) approach employing several density functional theory functionals, B3LYP, WB97XD, CAM-B3LYP and M06-2X, for the high layer. The formation of very recently proposed ?C-flavin N5 adduct inside the enzyme has been investigated. ONIOM (M06-2X/6-31+G(d,p):PM6) results revealed that such an adduct may form only in MAO-B suggesting slightly different hydride transfer mechanisms for MAO-A and MAO-B. HubMed – depression


Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) expression is up-regulated in lymphoblastoid cell lines of lithium responsive bipolar disorder patients.

Pharmacol Res. 2013 Apr 22;
Squassina A, Costa M, Congiu D, Manchia M, Angius A, Deiana V, Ardau R, Chillotti C, Severino G, Calza S, Del Zompo M

Bipolar disorder (BD) is a debilitating psychiatric disease characterized by alternating episodes of mania and depression. Among mood stabilizers, lithium is the mainstay for the treatment of BD, with approximately one-third of patients showing remission from episode recurrence. While there is evidence suggesting genetic load for lithium response in BD, its molecular underpinnings are still not completely understood. To identify genes potentially involved in (or correlated with) lithium response, we carried out a genome-wide expression analysis on lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from 10 BD patients responders (R) and 10 non-responders (NR) to lithium. We compared expression levels of the two groups and tested whether in vitro lithium treatment had different effects in LCLs of R compared to NR. At basal, 2060 genes were differentially expressed between R and NR while no genes were differentially regulated by lithium in the two groups. After pathway analysis based on the 2060 genes, 9 genes were selected for validation with qRT-PCR. Eight genes were validated in the same sample of LCLs while only Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) was significantly over-expressed in R compared to NR in the same sample as well as in an independent sample comprised of 6 R and 6 NR (sample 1, fold change=1.94; p=0.005; sample 2, fold change=2.21; p=0.005). IGF-1 was also significantly over-expressed in R but not in NR when compared to a sample of non-psychiatric controls. Our findings suggest that IGF-1 may be involved in lithium response, supporting further investigation on its potential as a biomarker. HubMed – depression