Compliance With Pharmacotherapy and Direct Healthcare Costs in Patients With Parkinson’s Disease: A Retrospective Claims Database Analysis.

Compliance with Pharmacotherapy and Direct Healthcare Costs in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease: A Retrospective Claims Database Analysis.

Appl Health Econ Health Policy. 2013 May 7;
Richy FF, Pietri G, Moran KA, Senior E, Makaroff LE

BACKGROUND: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurological disorder for which, at present, there is no cure. Current therapy is largely based on the use of dopamine agonists and dopamine replacement therapy, designed to control the signs and symptoms of the disease. The majority of current treatments are administered in tablet form and can involve multiple daily doses, which may contribute to sub-optimal compliance. Previous studies with small groups of patients suggest that non-compliance with treatment can result in poor response to therapy and may ultimately increase direct and indirect healthcare costs. OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent of non-compliance within the general PD population in the USA as well as the patient characteristics and healthcare costs associated with compliance and non-compliance. METHODS: A retrospective analysis from a managed care perspective was conducted using data from the USA PharMetrics patient-centric claims database. PharMetrics claims data were complete from 31 December 2005 to 31 December 2009. Patients were included if they had at least two diagnoses for PD between 31 December 2005 and 31 December 2008, were older than 18 years of age, were continuously enrolled for at least 12 months after the date of the most recent PD diagnosis, and had no missing or invalid data. The follow-up period was the most recent 12-month block of continuous enrollment that occurred between 2006 and 2009. Patients were required to have at least one PD-related prescription within the follow-up period. The medication possession ratio (MPR) was used to categorise patients as compliant or non-compliant. Direct all-cause annual healthcare costs for patients with PD were estimated for each patient, and regression analyses were conducted to determine predictors for non-compliance. RESULTS: A total of 15,846 patients were included, of whom 46 % were considered to be non-compliant with their prescribed medication (MPR <0.8). Predictors of non-compliance included prescription of a medication administered in multiple daily doses (p < 0.0001), a period of <2 years since the initial PD diagnosis (p = 0.0002), a diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorder (p < 0.0001), and a diagnosis of depression (p < 0.0001). Non-compliance was also found to be related to age, with a lower odds of non-compliance in patients aged 41-80 years than in patients aged ?81 years (p < 0.05). Although total drug mean costs were higher for compliant patients than non-compliant patients (driven mainly by the cost of PD-related medications), the mean costs associated with emergency room and inpatient visits were higher for patients non-compliant with their prescribed medication. Overall, the total all-cause annual healthcare mean cost was lower for compliant ($ 77,499) than for non-compliant patients ($ 84,949; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Non-compliance is prevalent within the general USA PD population and is associated with a recent PD diagnosis, certain comorbidities, and multiple daily treatment dosing. Non-compliance may increase the burden on the healthcare system because of greater resource usage compared with the compliant population. Treatments that require fewer daily doses may have the potential to improve compliance, which in turn could reduce the economic burden associated with PD. HubMed – depression


Pharmacological traits of delta opioid receptors: pitfalls or opportunities?

Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2013 May 7;
van Rijn RM, Defriel JN, Whistler JL

RATIONALE: Delta opioid receptors (DORs) have been considered as a potential target to relieve pain as well as treat depression and anxiety disorders and are known to modulate other physiological responses, including ethanol and food consumption. A small number of DOR-selective drugs are in clinical trials, but no DOR-selective drugs have been approved by the Federal Drug Administration and some candidates have failed in phase II clinical trials, highlighting current difficulties producing effective delta opioid-based therapies. Recent studies have provided new insights into the pharmacology of the DOR, which is often complex and at times paradoxical. OBJECTIVE: This review will discuss the existing literature focusing on four aspects: (1) Two DOR subtypes have been postulated based on differences in pharmacological effects of existing DOR-selective ligands. (2) DORs are expressed ubiquitously throughout the body and central nervous system and are, thus, positioned to play a role in a multitude of diseases. (3) DOR expression is often dynamic, with many reports of increased expression during exposure to chronic stimuli, such as stress, inflammation, neuropathy, morphine, or changes in endogenous opioid tone. (4) A large structural variety in DOR ligands implies potential different mechanisms of activating the receptor. CONCLUSION: The reviewed features of DOR pharmacology illustrate the potential benefit of designing tailored or biased DOR ligands. HubMed – depression


Mania during antidepressant withdrawal in late-onset depression.

Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2013 Jun; 28(6): 654-5
Singh A, Alexopoulos GS

HubMed – depression


Clinical features of chronic pain with neuropathic characteristics: A symptom-based assessment using the Pain DETECT Questionnaire.

Eur J Pain. 2013 May 7;
Shaygan M, Böger A, Kröner-Herwig B

BACKGROUND: In general, chronic pain is categorized into two mechanism-based groups: nociceptive and neuropathic pain. This dichotomous approach is questioned and a dimensional perspective is suggested. The present study investigated neuropathic characteristics in different syndromes of chronic pain. We also examined the association of neuropathic characteristics with various pain related and psychological variables. METHODS: From April 2010 to January 2012, 400 patients suffering from a chronic pain condition enrolled for multidisciplinary pain treatment were considered for inclusion in the study. Criteria for inclusion were age over 18 years and having chronic pain according to ICD-10 (F45.41) criteria. The pain DETECT questionnaire was used to assess neuropathic characteristics of pain. RESULTS: Thirty-seven percent of patients with different pain diagnoses demonstrated distinct neuropathic characteristics. The diagnostic groups for neuropathic pain, musculoskeletal pain and post traumatic or surgical pain showed the most neuropathic features. The level of depression, pain chronicity and intensity, disability and length of hospital stay were significantly higher in patients suffering from neuropathic symptoms. A high level of depression and pain chronicity as well as high intensity of pain explained most of the variance in the neuropathic scores. Disability and length of hospital stay significantly predicted neuropathic characteristics only when examined separately, but not if included in a common regression model. CONCLUSIONS: Any type of chronic pain may have more or less neuropathic characteristics. The pain-related parameters of high intensity and chronicity as well as negative affectivity and functional disability strongly correlate with neuropathic characteristics of pain. HubMed – depression