Comparing the Effectiveness of Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy and Applied Relaxation on Acceptance of Internal Experiences, Engagement in Valued Actions and Quality of Life in Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

Comparing the effectiveness of acceptance-based behavior therapy and applied relaxation on acceptance of internal experiences, engagement in valued actions and quality of life in generalized anxiety disorder.

J Res Med Sci. 2013 Feb; 18(2): 118-22
Zargar F, Farid AA, Atef-Vahid MK, Afshar H, Omidi A

Acceptance-based behavior therapy (ABBT) was developed based on the theory that generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is maintained through a reactive and fused relationship with internal experiences and a tendency toward experiential avoidance and behavioral restriction. ABBT specifically targets these elements. Here, we aimed to compare ABBT to the applied relaxation (AR), which is the most utilized psychological therapy for GAD.This study was a randomized clinical trial study. The sample included 18 GAD patients who were referred by an expert psychiatrist to Psychosomatic Research Center of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Patients were assigned into two groups (ABBT and AR group). Both groups received routine drug therapies by psychiatrists. The ABBT and AR were applied in 12 weekly sessions. The instruments used in the study included Valued Living Questionnaire, Action, and Acceptance Questionnaire, and Short-Form Health Survey-12 revised Version (SF-12V2). The data were analyzed using the multivariate analysis of variance.No significant differences were found between ABBT and AR groups in their acceptance of internal experiences, engagement in meaningful activities and quality of life (P > 0.05).The current study compared ABBT to the most utilized psychological therapy for GAD; i.e., AR. ABBT and AR have similar efficacy on acceptance of internal experiences, valued actions and quality of life. HubMed – drug

Development of Next-Generation Peptide Binders Using In vitro Display Technologies and Their Potential Applications.

Front Immunol. 2013; 4: 224
Wada A

During the last decade, a variety of monoclonal antibodies have been developed and used as molecular targeting drugs in medical therapies. Although antibody drugs tend to have intense pharmacological activities and negligible side effects, several issues in their development and prescription remain to be resolved. Synthetic peptides with affinities and specificities for a desired target have received significant attention as alternatives to antibodies. In vitro display technologies are powerful methods for the selection of such peptides from combinatorial peptide libraries. Various types of peptide binders are being selected with such technologies for use in a wide range of fields from bioscience to medicine. This mini review article focuses on the current state of in vitro display selection of synthetic peptide binders and compares the selected peptides with natural peptides/proteins to provide a better understanding of the target affinities and inhibitory activities derived from their amino acid sequences and structural frameworks. The potential of synthetic peptide binders as alternatives to antibody drugs in therapeutic applications is also reviewed. HubMed – drug

Mechanisms regulating resistance to inhibitors of topoisomerase II.

Front Pharmacol. 2013; 4: 89
Ganapathi RN, Ganapathi MK

Inhibitors of topoisomerase II (topo II) are clinically effective in the management of hematological malignancies and solid tumors. The efficacy of anti-tumor drugs targeting topo II is often limited by resistance and studies with in vitro cell culture models have provided several insights on potential mechanisms. Multidrug transporters that are involved in the efflux and consequently reduced cytotoxicity of diverse anti-tumor agents suggest that they play an important role in resistance to clinically active drugs. However, in clinical trials, modulating the multidrug-resistant phenotype with agents that inhibit the efflux pump has not had an impact. Since reduced drug accumulation per se is insufficient to explain tumor cell resistance to topo II inhibitors several studies have focused on characterizing mechanisms that impact on DNA damage mediated by drugs that target the enzyme. Mammalian topo II? and topo II? isozymes exhibit similar catalytic, but different biologic, activities. Whereas topo II? is associated with cell division, topo II? is involved in differentiation. In addition to site specific mutations that can affect drug-induced topo II-mediated DNA damage, post-translation modification of topo II primarily by phosphorylation can potentially affect enzyme-mediated DNA damage and the downstream cytotoxic response of drugs targeting topo II. Signaling pathways that can affect phosphorylation and changes in intracellular calcium levels/calcium dependent signaling that can regulate site-specific phosphorylation of topoisomerase have an impact on downstream cytotoxic effects of topo II inhibitors. Overall, tumor cell resistance to inhibitors of topo II is a complex process that is orchestrated not only by cellular pharmacokinetics but more importantly by enzymatic alterations that govern the intrinsic drug sensitivity. HubMed – drug