Combined Radio- and Chemotherapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Systematic Review of Landmark Studies Based on Acquired Citations.

Combined Radio- and Chemotherapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Systematic Review of Landmark Studies Based on Acquired Citations.

Front Oncol. 2013; 3: 176
Nieder C, Pawinski A, Andratschke NH

The important role of combined chemoradiation for several groups of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is reflected by the large number of scientific articles published during the last 30?years. Different measures of impact and clinical relevance of published research are available, each with its own pros and cons. For this review, article citation rate was chosen. Highly cited articles were identified through systematic search of the citation database Scopus. Among the 100 most often cited articles, meta-analyses (n?=?5) achieved a median of 203 citations, guidelines (n?=?7) 97, phase III trials (n?=?29) 168, phase II trials (n?=?21) 135, phase I trials (n?=?7) 88, and others combined 115.5 (p?=?0.001). Numerous national and international cooperative groups and several single institutions were actively involved in performing often cited, high-impact trials, reflecting the fact that NSCLC is a world-wide challenge that requires research collaboration. Platinum-containing combinations have evolved into a standard of care, typically administered concurrently. The issue of radiotherapy fractionation and total dose has also been studied extensively, yet with less conclusive results. Differences in target volume definition have been addressed. However, it was not possible to test all theoretically possible combinations of radiotherapy regimens, drugs, and drug doses (lower radiosensitizing doses compared to higher systemically active doses). That is why current guidelines offer physicians a choice of different, presumably equivalent treatment alternatives. This review identifies open questions and strategies for further research. HubMed – drug

Targeted Drug Discovery for Pediatric Leukemia.

Front Oncol. 2013; 3: 170
Napper AD, Watson VG

Despite dramatic advances in the treatment of pediatric leukemia over the past 50?years, there remain subsets of patients who respond poorly to treatment. Many of the high-risk cases of childhood leukemia with the poorest prognosis have been found to harbor specific genetic signatures, often resulting from chromosomal rearrangements. With increased understanding of the genetic and epigenetic makeup of high-risk pediatric leukemia has come the opportunity to develop targeted therapies that promise to be both more effective and less toxic than current chemotherapy. Of particular importance is an understanding of the interconnections between different targets within the same cancer, and observations of synergy between two different targeted therapies or between a targeted drug and conventional chemotherapy. It has become clear that many cancers are able to circumvent a single specific blockade, and pediatric leukemias are no exception in this regard. This review highlights the most promising approaches to new drugs and drug combinations for high-risk pediatric leukemia. Key biological evidence supporting selection of molecular targets is presented, together with a critical survey of recent progress toward the discovery, pre-clinical development, and clinical study of novel molecular therapeutics. HubMed – drug

Multilayer thin-film phantoms for axial contrast transfer function measurement in optical coherence tomography.

Biomed Opt Express. 2013 Jul 1; 4(7): 1166-1175
Agrawal A, Chen CW, Baxi J, Chen Y, Pfefer TJ

In optical coherence tomography (OCT), axial resolution is one of the most critical parameters impacting image quality. It is commonly measured by determining the point spread function (PSF) based on a specular surface reflection. The contrast transfer function (CTF) provides more insights into an imaging system’s resolving characteristics and can be readily generated in a system-independent manner, without consideration for image pixel size. In this study, we developed a test method for determination of CTF based on multi-layer, thin-film phantoms, evaluated using spectral- and time-domain OCT platforms with different axial resolution values. Phantoms representing six spatial frequencies were fabricated and imaged. The fabrication process involved spin coating silicone films with precise thicknesses in the 8-40 ?m range. Alternating layers were doped with a specified concentration of scattering particles. Validation of layer optical properties and thicknesses were achieved with spectrophotometry and stylus profilometry, respectively. OCT B-scans were used to calculate CTFs and results were compared with convetional PSF measurements based on specular reflections. Testing of these phantoms indicated that our approach can provide direct access to axial resolution characteristics highly relevant to image quality. Furthermore, tissue phantoms based on our thin-film fabrication approach may have a wide range of additional applications in optical imaging and spectroscopy. HubMed – drug