Collective Action and Individual Choice: Rethinking How We Regulate Narcotics and Antibiotics.

Collective action and individual choice: rethinking how we regulate narcotics and antibiotics.

J Med Ethics. 2013 Feb 20;
Anomaly J

Governments across the globe have squandered treasure and imprisoned millions of their own citizens by criminalising the use and sale of recreational drugs. But use of these drugs has remained relatively constant, and the primary victims are the users themselves. Meanwhile, antimicrobial drugs that once had the power to cure infections are losing their ability to do so, compromising the health of people around the world. The thesis of this essay is that policymakers should stop wasting resources trying to fight an unwinnable and morally dubious war against recreational drug users, and start shifting their attention to the serious threat posed by our collective misuse of antibiotics. HubMed – drug

Evaluation of a novel closed-loop total intravenous anaesthesia drug delivery system: a randomized controlled trial.

Br J Anaesth. 2013 Feb 20;
Hemmerling TM, Arbeid E, Wehbe M, Cyr S, Taddei R, Zaouter C

BACKGROUND: /st>We have developed an automatic anaesthesia system for closed-loop administration of anaesthesia drugs. The control variables used were bispectral index (BIS) and Analgoscore for hypnosis and antinociception, respectively. METHODS: /st>One hundred and eighty-six patients were randomly enrolled in two groups. Propofol, remifentanil, and rocuronium were administered using closed-loop feedback control (closed-loop, n = 93) or manually (control group, n = 93). The clinical performance of hypnosis control was determined by calculating the offset from a BIS of 45: ‘excellent’, ‘good’, ‘poor’, and ‘inadequate’ control was defined as BIS values within 10%, from 11% to 20%, from 21% to 30%, or >30% offset from the target. The clinical performance of analgesia was defined as the offset from Analgoscore values. Data presented as mean (standard deviation) (95% confidence interval). RESULTS: /st>Excellent or good control of hypnosis was achieved significantly longer in the closed-loop group [47.0 (9.8%) (45.0/49.0), 34.4 (4.7%) (33.5/35.4)] than in the control group [37.3 (14.3%) (34.4/40.2) and 32.3 (7.6%) (30.7/33.7)], respectively (PThe closed-loop system was better at maintaining BIS and Analgoscore than manual administration. HubMed – drug

Combined use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and sedatives/hypnotics during pregnancy: risk of relatively severe congenital malformations or cardiac defects. A register study.

BMJ Open. 2013; 3(2):
Reis M, Källén B

To investigate the proposed synergistic teratogenic effect of use of selective serotonin receptor inhibitors (SSRI) together with sedatives or hypnotics, primarily benzodiazepines, during pregnancy.Cohort study of congenital malformations after maternal use of SSRI, sedatives/hypnotics or the combination of the two drug categories.Swedish national health registers.A total of 10 511 infants born of women who had used SSRI drugs but no other central nervous system (CNS)-active drug, 1000 infants born of women who had used benzodiazepines and no other CNS-active drug, and 406 infants whose mothers had used both SSRI and benzodiazepines but no other CNS-active drug.None of the three groups showed a higher risk for any relatively severe congenital malformation or any cardiac defect when comparison was made with the general population risk (adjusted risk ratio (RR) for the combination of SSRI and benzodiazepines and a relatively severe malformation=1.17 (95% CI 0.70 to 1.73). Similar results were obtained for the combination of SSRI with other sedative/hypnotic drugs.The previously stated increased risk associated with the combined use of these drug categories, notably for a cardiac defect, could not be replicated. HubMed – drug

Adverse drug events in a paediatric intensive care unit: a prospective cohort.

BMJ Open. 2013; 3(2):
Silva DC, Araujo OR, Arduini RG, Alonso CF, Shibata AR, Troster EJ

To describe adverse drug events (ADEs) in children under intensive care, identify risk factors and tools that can detect ADEs early, and the impact on length of stay (LOS).A prospective observational study.Paediatric intensive care unit of a tertiary care teaching hospital.239 patients with a mean age of 67.5 months representing 1818 days of hospitalisation in intensive care unit.Active search of charts and electronic patient records using triggers. The statistical analysis involved linear and logistic regression.The average LOS was 7.6 days. There were 110 proven, probable and possible ADEs in 84 patients (35.1%). We observed 138 instances of triggers. The major classes of drugs associated with events were: antibiotics (n=41), diuretics (n=24), antiseizures (n=23), sedatives and analgesics (n=17) and steroids (n=18). The number of drugs administered was most related to the occurrence of ADEs and also to the LOS (p<0.001). The occurrence of an ADE may result in an increase in the LOS by 1.5 days per event, but this was not statistically significant in this sample. Patients aged less than 48 months also proved to be at a significant risk for ADEs, with an OR of 1.84 (95% CI 1.07 to 3.15, p=0.025). The number of drugs administered also correlated with the number of ADEs (p<0.0001). The chance of having at least one ADE increased linearly as the patient was administered more drugs.The use of multiple drugs as well as lower patient age favours the occurrence of ADEs. The active search described here provides a systematic approach to this problem. HubMed – drug

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